Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (2022)

Revision notes for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes help you understand all the essential topics of the chapter with ease. The askIITians Science experts have created revision notes for this chapter based on the latest CBSE syllabus and exam pattern. These notes include detailed, pointwise explanations for all the topics of the Life Processes chapter along with important diagrams and tables. You can access these online revision notes for free from our website and study them at your pace.

Chapter 6 Life Processes of Class 10 Science include topics like processes that are essential for maintaining life, nutrition, autotrophic nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition, nutrition in human beings, respiration, transportation in human beings, transportation in plants, excretion in human beings, and excretion in plants. Our online revision notes of this chapter can benefit you in many ways:

  • Remove your doubts regarding life processes
  • Get a deeper understanding of different life processes in human beings
  • Get free explanations for all the topics of life processes chapter
  • Prepare your classwork for life processes chapter
  • Learn the topics related to the life processes chapter for exams
  • Solve NCERT exercises of the chapter

All the processes such as respiration, nutrition, circulation, excretion etc. that are necessary for the survival of the living organisms are known as life processes.

Modes of Nutrition

The two most common types of nutrition are autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition.

Autotrophic Nutrition

It is a type of nutrition in which inorganic materials such as carbon dioxide, is used up to synthesise organic food by a process known as photosynthesis. For example, green plants use an autotrophic mode of nutrition. Organisms that use the autotrophic mode of nutrition are known as autotrophs.

Now the question arises how does autotrophic nutrition occur in plants using photosynthesis?

For photosynthesis to occur, carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and chlorophyll are the required raw materials. Sunlight provides energy, chlorophyll is used to absorb the sunlight, carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrates and water is oxidised to release the oxygen. Water is taken up from the soil through the roots.

The site where photosynthesis occurs is known as chloroplast. They contain a green colour pigment known as chlorophyll that traps sunlight for photosynthesis.

The steps of photosynthesis are as follows-

  • Absorption of light by chlorophyll.
  • Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
  • Splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Finally, reduction of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates.

Leaves contain small openings known as stomata which helps in the exchange of gases. The stomata/stoma is surrounded by a guard cell which guards the opening and closing of stomata. Guard cells also contain chloroplast.

(Video) Science Notes Class 10 Chapter-6 Life Processes Part-1 | Most Important Notes For Board Exam 2020 |

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (1)

Fig.1. Structure of Stomata

The overall equation of photosynthesis is:

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (2)

Fig.2. Overall Equation of Photosynthesis

Heterotrophic Nutrition

In this mode of nutrition, an organism is unable to synthesise its food. It is of the following types-

  1. Holozoic nutrition is a type of nutrition where an organism takes in whole food and breaks it inside the body. For example, Amoeba.
  2. Saprophytic nutrition is nutrition in which organisms feed on dead and decaying matter. For example, fungi.
  3. Parasitic nutrition is nutrition in which an organism feeds on a living host. For example, Cuscuta.

Nutrition in Human Beings

Humans consist of the alimentary canal which starts from the mouth and ends at the anus. The parts of the alimentary canal are as follows-

  1. Mouth
  2. Pharynx
  3. Oesophagus/food pipe
  4. Stomach
  5. Small intestine
  6. Large intestine
  7. Rectum
  8. Anus

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (3)

Fig.3. Human Digestive System

Mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal. The mouth consists of a muscular tongue and teeth. The cavity inside the mouth is known as the oral cavity.

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (4)

(Video) Life Processes Notes Class 10 CBSE | Toppers Handwritten Notes with PDF | Science Chapter 6 Biology

Fig.4. Human Mouth Parts

Mechanism of Digestion of Food

  • Food digestion process begins in the mouth. Food is complex in nature.
  • To break down food and absorb it, we need biological catalysts known as enzymes.
  • The mouth contains salivary glands that secrete saliva. Saliva contains an important enzyme known as the salivary enzyme that breaks down starch into simple sugars.
  • The food then passes via the oesophagus into the stomach. The movement of the food inside the oesophagus occurs via rhythmic contraction of muscles, this is known as peristalsis.
  • The stomach contains gastric glands that secrete mucus, hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme.
  • After the stomach, food then enters the small intestine. The small intestine is larger in herbivores due to cellulose digestion compared to carnivores.
  • Complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats occurs in the small intestine.
  • The small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas and bile from the liver. Bile helps in the emulsification of fats whereas the pancreas secretes enzymes such as trypsin for protein digestion. The intestinal wall also contains glands that secrete intestinal juice.
  • The small intestine has villi that increase the surface area for the absorption of food.
  • The unabsorbed food is then transferred to the large intestine where water is absorbed.
  • Undigested food is then expelled out from the anus.

Respiration

  • It is a metabolic process that involves the breakdown of food to release energy is known as respiration.

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (5)

Fig.5. Breakdown of glucose by different pathways

  • The breakdown of pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide in absence of oxygen is known as fermentation. As this process occurs in absence of oxygen, it is known as anaerobic respiration. When the pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide and water in presence of oxygen it is known as aerobic respiration.
  • The energy released during the process is used up to synthesise the ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
  • Compared to animals, plants used stomata to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. This exchange occurs through diffusion.

Respiration in Human Beings

Human respiratory system starts with the nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and then lungs. In the lungs, alveoli are present, where an exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (6)

Fig.6. Passage of air in Humans

Humans have a respiratory pigment known as haemoglobin to carry the oxygen to different parts of the body and to remove carbon dioxide from the body. Compared to oxygen, carbon dioxide is more soluble in water, so it is usually transported in dissolved form.

Transportation in Human Beings

Blood is a fluid connective tissue that transports food, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogenous waste etc. Blood contains plasma and blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. The heart is the pumping organ in the body.

  • The human heart is 4 chambered, with two atriums and two ventricles.
  • The left atrium receives the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. While receiving the blood it relaxes.
  • The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
  • Deoxygenated blood comes from the body to the upper right atrium. It contracts to pump the blood to the right ventricle.
  • The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (7)

Fig.7. Structure of Human Heart

Note: Fishes have a two-chambered heart, amphibians and reptiles have a three-chambered heart except crocodiles which possess a 4 chambered heart. Birds and mammals also have 4 chambered hearts.

(Video) Life Processes Class 10 full Chapter (Animation) | Class 10 Science Chapter 6 | CBSE | NCERT

Double Circulation

The right side and left side of the heart are separated to prevent the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. In vertebrates, blood goes through the heart twice during each cycle. This is defined as double circulation. (NTSE)

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (8)

Fig.8. Double Circulation

Note: The force that the blood exerts against the wall of the vessel is known as blood pressure. The pressure of blood inside the artery during ventricular contraction is known as systolic pressure whereas the pressure in the artery during ventricular relaxation is known as diastolic pressure. The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg.

Artery

Capillary

Vein

They carry blood away from the heart

One cell thick smallest vessels

They carry blood towards the heart

They carry oxygenated blood except for the pulmonary artery.

Help in the exchange of the material between the blood and surrounding cells.

They carry deoxygenated blood except for the pulmonary vein.

They have thick walls and do not have valves.

(Video) Life Process in One-Shot | CBSE Class 10 Science/Biology Chapter 6 | Vedantu Class 9 and 10 Hindi

They do not have valves

They have thin walls and also possess valves.

  • Platelets are blood cells that help in blood clotting.
  • Lymph is also known as interstitial fluid is a fluid that leaks out from the pores of the capillaries.

Transport in Plants

  • Plants have the xylem tissue for the transportation of water. Xylem transports water from the roots to different parts of the plants. Xylem tissue consists of vessels and tracheids.
  • Loss of water in the form of water vapour from the aerial parts of the plants is known as transpiration. The transpiration creates a suction that pulls the water up to the higher plants.
  • Similarly, the transport of food in plants occurs via the phloem. It transports food from the leaves to different parts of the plants.

Revision Notes for Science Chapter 6 - Life processes (Class 10th) (9)

Fig.9. Transport in Plants

Excretion

  • The process involved in the removal of nitrogenous waste from the body is known as excretion.
  • The excretory system of humans consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
  • The basic filtration unit of the kidneys is known as nephrons.
  • The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.
  • They consist of a bowman's capsule and a renal tubule.
  • For the formation of urine, some substances such as glucose and amino acids are selectively reabsorbed.
  • The amount of water reabsorbed depends on how much water is there in the body.
  • The urinary bladder is a muscular structure and it is under nervous control

Fig.10. Human Excretory System

Note: Plants excrete their waste through transpiration. Plants also produce other excretory waste in the form of gums, resins etc.

  1. Why should I use revision notes for Class 10 Chapter 6 Life Processes?

Referring to the NCERT textbook every time you study/revise a chapter is difficult. Many students get overwhelmed because they have to read the whole chapter again before exams. Revision notes can be a great option to revise the chapter easily and quickly. They include all the important definitions and diagrams that help students in understanding the concepts of the chapter.

  1. How to study CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 10 Life Processes?

You must read the chapter first from the NCERT textbook and make some notes. These notes will help you revise the chapter concepts easily. Make sure that you use simple language in your notes so that revising a topic does not confuse you. Once you have understood the concepts, start solving the NCERT questions of the chapter. You can also check NCERT Exemplar problems for the chapter to test how well you understand the concepts.

  1. What is included in the online revision notes for Chapter 10 Life Processes?

The online revision notes for Life Processes by askIITians include all the topics of this chapter like autotrophic nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition, nutrition in human beings, respiration, transportation in human beings, transportation in plants, excretion in human beings, and excretion in plants.

  1. How can askIITians help me in scoring full marks in CBSE Class 10 Science exam?

At askIITians, we provide online coaching for CBSE Class 10 Science where our experts teach all the concepts to the students step by step. We also provide study materials to aid your learning like revision notes, NCERT Solutions, previous year papers, extra questions, NCERT Exemplar solutions, mind maps and flashcards.

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askIITians is an online learning platform where the best teachers of India provide coaching for Science and Maths to the students. We have compiled the best Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 notes for Science and Maths for the students so that they can learn every concept thoroughly and excel in their studies. Along with this, we provide a plethora of study resources for all the chapters.

(Video) LIFE PROCESSES II CHAPTER 6 II GRADE 10 SCIENCE II DIVE SESSION

FAQs

What are the notes of life processes? ›

→ All living things perform certain life processes like growth, excretion, respiration, circulation etc. → All the processes like respiration, digestion, which together keep the living organisms live and perform the job of body maintenance are called life processes. (i) Plants are autotrophs. (ii) Make their own food.

What are life processes 10 answers? ›

Life processes: 'Living being'. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

What is life processes Class 10 in simple words? ›

These basic essential activities performed by an organism are called life processes. Important life processes include nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction and excretion, which help in the maintenance of living organisms.

How many topics are there in life processes Class 10? ›

There are six life processes that all living organisms perform. They are movement, respiration, growth, reproduction, excretion and nutrition.

What is life process full explanation? ›

Solution: ∙ Life processes include all the activities that an organism performs to survive in the environment. ∙ There are various activities of the living system that help an organism survive. This includes nutrition, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, reproduction, development and sensation.

What is nutrition class 10th notes? ›

Nutrition: The process by which an organism takes food and utilizes it, is called nutrition. Need for Nutrition: Organisms need the energy to perform various activities. The energy is supplied by the nutrients. Organisms need various raw materials for growth and repair.

How is food transported in plant? ›

Ans. The transport of food in plants is called translocation. It takes place with the help of a conducting tissue called phloem. Phloem transports glucose, amino acids and other substances from leaves to root, shoot, fruits and seeds.

What is photosynthesis class 10th? ›

Photosynthesis is the conversion of sunlight, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water into food (sugars) and oxygen by plants, algae, and some microorganisms. Light energy is collected and used by green plants during the process to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic molecules.

How do organisms reproduce? ›

Organisms reproduce in two ways- asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of male and female gametes. This takes place in bacteria, amoeba, hydra, etc. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes and can be seen in humans and many animals.

What is nutrition Short answer? ›

Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It provides organisms with nutrients, which can be metabolized to create energy and chemical structures. Failure to obtain sufficient nutrients causes malnutrition.

What is mode of nutrition? ›

There are two modes of nutrition: Autotrophic – Plants exhibit autotrophic nutrition and are called primary producers. Plants synthesis their food by using light, carbon dioxide and water. Heterotrophic – Both animals and human beings are called heterotrophs, as they depend on plants for their food.

What are the 7 life processes of a plant? ›

The seven life processes of plant life include movement, sensitivity, nutrition, excretion, respiration, reproduction and growth.

What are the 4 types of life processes? ›

All living organisms have certain characteristics that distinguish them from non-living forms. The basic processes of life include organization, metabolism, responsiveness, movements, and reproduction.

Why is life process important? ›

All living things perform certain life process like, growth, excretion respiration circulation etc. THE BASIC FUNCTION PERFORM BY living organisms for their survival and body maintenance are called life process.

What is reproduce in biology? ›

Reproduction is the production of offspring. There are two main forms: sexual and asexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction, an organism combines the genetic information from each of its parents and is genetically unique. In asexual reproduction, one parent copies itself to form a genetically identical offspring.

What are enzymes class 10th? ›

Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves.

What are the types of nutrition? ›

What Are the Types of Nutrition That Humans Need?
  • Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are also known as carbs or saccharides. ...
  • Protein. They are a group of molecules that form amino acids. ...
  • Fats. Fats are essential to support cell growth and supply energy to the body. ...
  • Water. ...
  • Minerals. ...
  • Fibres. ...
  • Vitamins.
8 Aug 2022

What are the 7 life functions? ›

There are seven life processes that tell us that animals are alive. To help us remember them we have found a friend to remind you - Mrs Nerg. Although her name sounds a bit strange, the letters in it stand for the life processes - movement, reproduction, sensitivity, nutrition, excretion, respiration and growth.

What is the importance of life processes Class 10? ›

Importance of Life Processes

Nutrition in living organisms promotes a healthy and disease-free life by maintaining the proper functioning of different organs and organ systems. Respiration is essential to provide energy to each and every cell for performing vital activities.

What is life process class 10 biology? ›

Biological processes are those that are required for an organism to survive and shape its ability to interact with its surroundings. All processes that are occurring in the life forms are termed as life processes.

How do organisms reproduce notes? ›

Organisms reproduce in two ways- asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of male and female gametes. This takes place in bacteria, amoeba, hydra, etc. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes and can be seen in humans and many animals.

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