Qualitative detection of ginsenosides in brain tissues after oral administration of high-purity ginseng total saponins by using polyclonal antibody against ginsenosides (2023)

Cited by (16)

  • A possible mechanism to the antidepressant-like effects of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol based on its target protein 14-3-3 ζ

    2022, Journal of Ginseng Research

    Citation Excerpt :

    20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), a metabolite of ginsenosides, can also penetrate the BBB [10,11]. In our previous study, we used immunofluorescence double staining with antiginsenoside polyclonal antibody to detect ginsenosides in vascular endotheliocytes, astrocytes, and neurons in brain tissues after the oral administration of high-purity ginseng total saponins [12]. These results implied that ginsenosides or their metabolites exert antidepressant effects via direct targets in brain tissues.

    Ginsenosides and their metabolites have antidepressant-like effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified 14-3-3 ζ as one of the target proteins of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), a fully deglycosylated ginsenoside metabolite.

    Corticosterone (CORT) was administered repeatedly to induce the depression model, and PPD was given concurrently. The tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) were used for behavioral evaluation. All mice were sacrificed. Golgi-cox staining, GSK 3β activity assay, and Western blot analysis were performed. Invitro, the kinetic binding analysis with the Biolayer Interferometry (BLI) was used to determine the molecular interactions.

    TST and FST both revealed that PPD reversed CORT-induced behavioral deficits. PPD also ameliorated the CORT-induced expression alterations of hippocampal Ser9 phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-Ser9 GSK 3β), Ser133 phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-Ser133 CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Moreover, PPD attenuated the CORT-induced increase in GSK 3β activity and decrease in dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. Invitro, 14-3-3 ζ protein specifically bound to p-Ser9 GSK 3β polypeptide. PPD promoted the binding and subsequently decreased GSK 3β activity.

    These findings demonstrated the antidepressant-like effects of PPD on the CORT-induced mouse depression model and indicated a possible target-based mechanism. The combination of PPD with the 14-3-3 ζ protein may promote the binding of 14-3-3 ζ to p-GSK 3β (Ser9) and enhance the inhibition of Ser9 phosphorylation on GSK 3β kinase activity, thereby activating the plasticity-related CREB–BDNF signaling pathway.

  • Plant derived bioactive compounds and their potential to enhance adult neurogenesis

    2022, Phytomedicine Plus

    Citation Excerpt :

    Due to this, the bioavailability is low, and the diffusion, absorbance, and clearance modes are different from that of its parent compound (Qi et al., 2011). Whether ginsenosides can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains unknown (Zhao et al., 2018) Clinical studies: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that included 90 volunteers with mild cognitive impairment, 3 g of P. ginseng powder (test group) and starch (placebo group) were administered for six months.

    Self-renewal and proliferation of neural progenitor cells occur throughout humans' lives. However, aging, stress, and degenerative diseases can hinder or stop the process. If you can accelerate neurogenesis in adults, this is a promising way to recover from neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments. As the demand for a safer and natural therapeutic product has increased over the past decade, medicinal plants seem to be a viable alternative to synthetic medicines. Since early human civilization, various herbs have been used as medicines and are still a basis for different modern medications. With the advancements in science, researchers can isolate the active compounds in an herb and predict these herbs' line of action when used as a drug. Our current knowledge of medicinal plants with neurological functions is many, but only a few are scientifically validated.

    A review of the scientific literature explaining plants' bioactive compounds that show neurogenesis was executed. All published data till the year 2021 have been taken to consideration. PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar directories were used to explore literature published using relevant keywords.

    Plants like Panax ginseng, Lycium barbarum, Acorus tatarinowii, Curcuma longa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Centella asiatica, Bacopa monnieri, Ginkgo biloba, Cuscuta japonica, Radix Astragali, Hericium erinaceus and Banisteriopsis caapi have shown to induce neurogenesis.

    The information on plants compiled in this review pertains to those with a therapeutic value that can be used for drug development to cope with neurodegenerative diseases and memory impairment.

  • Korean Red Ginseng inhibits methamphetamine addictive behaviors by regulating dopaminergic and NMDAergic system in rodents

    2022, Journal of Ginseng Research

    Citation Excerpt :

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that ginsenoside can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and directly affect the CNS. When ginseng total saponin 100 mg/kg was treated orally for 1 week, Rg1 was detected in brain tissue through HPLC analysis, and the amount was estimated to be less than 0.25 ng/ml [22]. In another study using subcutaneous administration of 12.5 mg/kg Re, the mean Cmax was 0.56 ng/ml in cerebrospinal fluid dialysate, and it was found that even small amount of Re could regulate dopamine releasing in several brain regions [23].

    Methamphetamine (METH) is the most widely used psychostimulant and has been known to exhibit reinforcing effects even after long abstinence. We showed the inhibitory effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) on METH-induced addictive behaviors in animal models mimicking the human drug-use pattern.

    We first investigated the effect of RGE on the acquisition of METH-induced dependence using self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, further experiments such as METH-induced motivational behavior and seeking behavior were conducted. To study the underlying mechanism, dopamine receptor, dopamine transporter, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor were assessed through Western blot analysis.

    Treatment with RGE significantly reduced METH-induced self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. It could be also decreased a progressive ratio schedule, and inhibited METH-primed reinstatement. In CPP, RGE significantly prevented the development of METH-induced CPP. Moreover, RGE not only shortened the withdrawal period clearly, but also prevented the reinstatement of CPP. RGE treatment also reversed METH-induced overexpression of dopamine transporter, dopamine receptor D1, and NMDA receptor in the nucleus accumbens.

    Our findings reflect that RGE has therapeutic potential to suppress METH-induced addictive behaviors by regulating dopaminergic and NMDAergic system.

  • Korean red ginseng suppresses 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced inflammation in the substantia nigra and colon

    2021, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

    Citation Excerpt :

    Ginsenoside Rd protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+ toxicity (Liu et al., 2015), ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cell death in MPP+-treated PC12 cells (Zhou et al., 2016), and ginsenosides Rd and Re protect CCl4-exposed dopaminergic neurons in primary culture (Zhang et al., 2016). Moreover, ginsenosides Rg1 (Heng et al., 2016; Zhou et al., 2015), Rb1 (Zhang et al., 2018) and Re (Xu et al., 2005) show the neuroprotective effect in the brain of MPTP-treated mouse, and ginsenoside Rg1 is detected in brain tissues after oral administration of ginseng total saponins (Zhao et al., 2018), indicating that KRG and some of the ingredients such as ginsenoside Rg1 can be transported to the brain and directly protect dopaminergic neurons. However, further research is needed to elucidate how ginsenoside Rg1 are transmitted to the brain and which ginsenosides other than Rg1 can be transported from the colon to the brain.

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease involving dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra (SN); recent studies have shown that interactions between gut and brain play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and the changes in gut microbiota were evaluated in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Male nine-week-old C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 30mg/kg of MPTP at 24-h intervals for 5days. Two hours after the daily MPTP injection, the mice were orally administered 100mg/kg of KRG, which continued for 7days beyond the MPTP injections, for a total of 12 consecutive days. Eight days after the final KRG administration, the pole and rotarod tests were performed and brain and colon samples of the mice were collected. Dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes, α-synuclein and expressions of inflammatory cytokines and disruption of tight junction were evaluated. In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of mouse fecal samples was performed to investigate microbiome changes. KRG treatment prevented MPTP-induced behavioral impairment, dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes in the nigrostriatal pathway, disruption of tight junction and the increase in α-synuclein, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the colon. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that MPTP altered the number of bacterial species and their relative abundances, which were partially suppressed by KRG treatment. Especially, KRG suppressed the abundance of the inflammation-related phylum Verrucomicrobia and genera Ruminococcus and Akkermansia (especially Akkermansia muciniphila), and elevated the abundance of Eubacterium, which produces the anti-inflammatory substances. These findings suggest that KRG prevents MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes, and accumulation of α-synuclein in the SN, and the regulation of inflammation-related factors in the colon may influence the effect.

  • Notoginsenoside R1 activates the Ang2/Tie2 pathway to promote angiogenesis

    2020, Phytomedicine

    Citation Excerpt :

    Chinese herbal medicines have long been applied for the treatment of ischemic diseases in China, but their active components and pharmacological mechanisms are not clearly defined. Panax notoginseng is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and saponins are considered as its main active components (Zhao et al., 2018). Panax notoginseng saponin injection, namely, Xueshuantong Injection (Lyophilized), is widely used for cerebral ischemia and cardiac ischemia (Gui et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2015) and has achieved satisfactory outcomes in clinical treatment.

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a novel strategy for the treatment of ischemic diseases that involves promotion of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues via the use of proangiogenic agents. However, effective proangiogenic drugs that activate the Ang2/Tie2 signaling pathway remain scarce.

    We aimed to investigate the proangiogenic activity of notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) isolated from total saponins of Panax notoginseng with regard to activation of the Ang2/Tie2 signaling pathway.

    We examined the proangiogenic effects of NR1 by assessing the effects of NR1 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The aortic ring assay and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor (VRI)-induced vascular regression in the zebrafish model were used to confirm the proangiogenic effects of NR1 ex vivo and in vivo. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism was investigated by Western blot analysis.

    We found that NR1 promoted the proliferation, mobility and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. NR1 also increased the number of sprouting vessels in rat aortic rings and rescued VRI-induced vascular regression in zebrafish. NR1-induced angiogenesis was dependent on Tie2 receptor activation mediated by increased autocrine Ang2 in HUVECs, and inhibition of the Ang2/Tie2 pathway abrogated the proangiogenic effects of NR1.

    Our results suggest that NR1 promotes angiogenesis by activating the Ang2/Tie2 signaling pathway. Thus, NR1-induced activation of the Ang2/Tie2 pathway is an effective proangiogenic approach. NR1 may be useful agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases.

View all citing articles on Scopus

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Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


What is ginsenosides in ginseng? ›

The ginsenosides are the major active pharmacological components of ginseng [18]. Ginsenosides, also known as steroid-like saponins, are unique to ginseng species. There are more than 100 ginsenosides, which are expressed by Rx.

Does ginseng cross the blood brain barrier? ›

Ginsenoside Rg1, the major bioactive component of Panax ginseng, is used for treating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as cerebral edema and cerebral ischemia. Ginsenoside Rg1 cannot pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) [13,14].

What are the sources of ginsenosides? ›

Ginsenosides are the major active constituents in Ginseng. Ginseng is used to describe related plant containing related constituents. Ginsenosides are found in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Panax japonicus, Panax notoginseng, Panax cocos, and Pfaffia paniculata.

What is the mechanism of action of ginsenosides? ›

Two broad mechanisms of action have been suggested for ginsenoside activity, based on their similarity to steroid hormones. They are amphiphilic and may interact with and change the properties of cell membranes. Some ginsenosides have also been shown to be partial agonists of steroid hormone receptors.

What are the side effects of ginsenosides? ›

It has been reported to cause nervousness and insomnia. Long-term use or high doses of ginseng may lead to headaches, dizziness, stomach upset, and other symptoms. Women who use ginseng regularly may experience menstrual changes. There have also been reports of allergic reactions to ginseng.

Are ginsenosides good for you? ›

A 2014 study suggests that ginseng may help lower blood sugar and help treat diabetes. Ginsenosides may affect insulin production in the pancreas and improve insulin resistance using other mechanisms. Another 2014 study showed similar benefits of ginseng on lowering blood sugar.

Who should not take ginseng supplements? ›

Don't use Panax ginseng if you have any auto-immune condition. Bleeding conditions: Panax ginseng seems to interfere with blood clotting. Don't use Panax ginseng if you have a bleeding condition. Heart conditions: Panax ginseng can affect heart rhythm and blood pressure slightly on the first day it is used.

What herbs break the blood brain barrier? ›

Rosemary is such a potent antioxidant that it is used as a preservative in food items, and that antioxidant action is thought to cross the blood-brain barrier.

Does ginseng affect memory? ›

1. Ginseng Improves Memory and Mental Performance. Ginseng can help prevent memory loss and mitigate age-related mental decline. There's evidence that at least some of ginseng's cognitive-boosting power is due to its anti-fatigue effects.

Which ginseng has highest ginsenosides? ›

The highest total concentration of major ginsenosides was found in the ginseng cultivated in Jinan (0.931 mg/g) and 4-year grown red ginseng (1.785 mg/g).

What percentage is ginsenosides? ›

Standardization is to the ginsenoside content, which is usually recommended to be 1.5 to 7 percent.

Is ginsenoside a steroid? ›

(Araliaceae) Ginsenosides are a class of steroid glycosides, and triterpene saponins present in ginseng.

How does ginseng work in the brain? ›

Ginseng is traditionally used to protect the nervous system. Ginseng is effective in memory improvement, and in the direct prevention of degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The neuroprotective effect of ginseng may be useful in the prevention of depression.

What are the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides against cerebral ischemia? ›

The neuroprotective mechanism of the ginsenosides is associated with TLR4/MyD88 and SIRT1 activation signaling pathways, and can reduce cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting NF-κB transcriptional activity and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ...

What receptors does ginseng affect? ›

Ginseng has been shown to have an anxiolytic-like effect in animal model studies (Kim et al., 2009). Recent studies have shown that ginsenosides interact with the GABAA receptor, and may regulate the binding of the ligand with the GABAA receptor.

What are the different types of ginsenosides? ›

Depending on the differences in their chemical compositions and configurations, ginsenosides are classified into three types: panaxadiol, panaxatriol, and oleanolic acid [15].

What is in ginseng that is good for the brain? ›

Panax ginseng is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (also known as Korean or Asian ginseng). Its root contains compounds called ginsenosides, which have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Panax ginseng is purported to enhance longevity, promote cognitive functions, and alleviate fatigue.

What are the side effects of Ginsana? ›

Trouble sleeping is the most common side effect. Less common effects include headache, agitation, upset stomach, menstrual problems (such as unusual vaginal bleeding), breast pain, and dizziness. An increase or decrease in blood pressure may also occur.

What is a ginsenoside? ›

Ginsenosides are triterpene saponins. Most ginsenosides are composed of a dammarane skeleton (17 carbons in a four-ring structure) with various sugar moieties (e.g. glucose, rhamnose, xylose and arabinose) attached to the C-3 and C-20 positions [9,10].

Does ginseng affect immune system? ›

Ginseng has tremendous role in boosting immunity against cancer, bacterial and viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Ginsenosides and polysaccharides are among the important constituent of ginseng that has immune boosting properties.

Why you should be careful about ginseng? ›

People with high blood pressure should not take Asian ginseng products without their doctor's supervision. People who are ill or have low blood pressure should take caution when using Asian ginseng. People with bipolar disorder should not take ginseng because it may increase the risk of mania.

What happens when you take ginseng everyday? ›

Ginseng stimulates brain cells and improves concentration and cognitive activities. Evidence shows that taking Panax ginseng root daily for 12 weeks can improve mental performance in people with Alzheimer's disease.

Can ginseng raise blood pressure? ›

While ginseng can elevate blood pressure, this generally occurs with low blood pressure, which helps restore blood pressure to normal; ginseng also lowers high blood pressure [31]. Biochemical and pharmacological activities of ginseng related to blood pressure control are being clarified with continued research.

What herbs reduce brain inflammation? ›

Research shows that rosemary extract can even help attenuate brain inflammation and boost cognitive health with its antioxidant compounds. The sage (or Salvia) plant species has been used in traditional medicine for centuries.

What foods heal the blood-brain barrier? ›

Magnesium's protective effect against blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability has also been seen after traumatic brain injury (30). Foods that contain magnesium include spinach, chard, pumpkin seeds, almonds, avocado, dark chocolate and bananas.

Does cinnamon cross the blood-brain barrier? ›

Cinnamon is metabolized to sodium benzoate, crosses the blood-brain barrier and protects against the progression of Parkinson's disease.

How long can you safely take ginseng? ›

Ginseng should not be used for long periods. Asian ginseng should not be used for more than 3 months at a time, and Siberian ginseng should not be used for more than 2 months at a time. American ginseng has been used for up to 1 month, although certain extract products have been used for up to 4 months.

How long is it safe to take ginseng? ›

You can take ginseng in doses of 1 to 2 grams of root 3 or 4 times per day. You should only use it for 3 to 4 weeks.

How long does it take for ginseng to work? ›

Ginseng doesn't need to build up in your body for you to feel its effect. It could take as little as 24 hours or up to 48 hours to notice a difference in how you're feeling. How rapidly you feel the effects will depend on what type of ginseng and what form you're taking, along with how high of a dose you're on.

What is the best ginseng root in the world? ›

Cheong Kwan Jang Korean Red Ginseng. the world's No. 1 Ginseng Brand, CheongKwanJang, under its strict standards.

What is more powerful than ginseng? ›

Evidence has shown that Tibetan Rhodiola is in some ways more powerful than Ginseng. It is a superb herb for people who work very hard, either physically or mentally.

How much ginseng is safe daily? ›

The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia recommends a daily KRG intake of 1.5–10 g for medicinal purposes, which can be increased up to 30 g; however, for a dietary supplement, the KRG dose is limited to 2.4–80 mg of ginsenosides per day [12].

What drug is ginsenoside Rb1? ›

Ginsenoside Rb1 has anti-hyperglycemic effects and can protect pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting apoptosis [84] and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress [96].

What are the uses of ginsenosides? ›

ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergic, antidiabetic, and anticancer.

Which ginseng is best for brain fog? ›

Ginseng and brain fog

In one randomized trial, American ginseng was found to improve working memory, memory speed, and cognitive performance.

Does ginseng reduce anxiety? ›

Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases.

Does ginseng interfere with any medications? ›

American ginseng might stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Taking American ginseng along with these medications used for depression might cause side effects such as anxiousness, headache, restlessness, and insomnia.

How do you reverse brain ischemia? ›

To cure an ischemic stroke, doctors must dissolve the blood clot through either drugs or surgery. Common drugs used to cure ischemic stroke include tPA (tissue plasminogen activator), antiplatelets, or anticoagulants.

What is the best treatment for brain ischemia? ›

An IV injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) — also called alteplase (Activase) or tenecteplase (TNKase) — is the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke. An injection of TPA is usually given through a vein in the arm within the first three hours.

Does ginseng have anxiety side effects? ›

In general, ginseng use is well tolerated, but some patients experience side effects when taking it. Side effects associated with both Asian and American ginseng include nervousness, insomnia, changes in blood pressure, breast pain, vaginal bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, and mania.

Which is better ashwagandha or ginseng? ›

Ginseng tends to be stimulating, and high doses can make some people feel agitated. It's better to use in modest doses over months or years for a consistent building effect. The bottom line: In general, use ginseng for stimulating energy, and ashwagandha for relaxed energy. Either way, you really can't go wrong.

What are the benefits of taking gintonin? ›

Additionally, gintonin treatment significantly suppressed the tumor growth induced by subcutaneous grafts of melanoma cells. Gintonin reduced tumor necrosis, the pleomorphism of tumor cells, tumor cell mitosis, and angiogenesis and these effects appeared to be mediated by the inhibition of autotaxin activity.

Which ginseng has the most ginsenosides? ›

Panax ginseng is a plant that grows in Korea, China, and Siberia. It's considered an adaptogen, which are natural substances that are believed to stimulate the body's resistance to stressors. Panax ginseng contains many active chemicals. The most important are called ginsenosides or panaxosides.

What is the benefit of ginsenoside Rb1? ›

Ginsenoside Rb1 prevents neurotoxicity in high glucose-induced neuronal death by attenuating CHOP signaling mediated ER stress-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.

What is the best ginseng for brain focus? ›

Panax ginseng is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (also known as Korean or Asian ginseng). Its root contains compounds called ginsenosides, which have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Panax ginseng is purported to enhance longevity, promote cognitive functions, and alleviate fatigue.

How long does it take to feel the effects of ginseng? ›

Ginseng doesn't need to build up in your body for you to feel its effect. It could take as little as 24 hours or up to 48 hours to notice a difference in how you're feeling. How rapidly you feel the effects will depend on what type of ginseng and what form you're taking, along with how high of a dose you're on.

Which ginseng is best for inflammation? ›

Panax ginseng has been used for medicinal purposes in the Korean Peninsula for centuries owing to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and other health-enhancing effects, such as increasing longevity, protecting the cardiovascular system, and boosting the immune system.

Which is the best ginseng brand in the world? ›

CheongKwanJang is Korea's leading red ginseng brand with over 120 years of tradition. Through 120 years of manufacturing know-how and strict quality control, KGC prides itself on craftsmanship that has upheld the reputation of Korean ginseng for thousands of years.

What are the benefits of ginseng for the brain? ›

Ginseng is traditionally used to protect the nervous system. Ginseng is effective in memory improvement, and in the direct prevention of degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The neuroprotective effect of ginseng may be useful in the prevention of depression.

What is ginseng used to cure? ›

Ginseng has been used for improving overall health. It has also been used to strengthen the immune system and help fight off stress and disease. There are different types of ginseng. Asian ginseng (from Chinese and Korean sources) has been used for unclear thinking, diabetes, and male erectile dysfunction.

How does ginseng affect you? ›

Insomnia (trouble sleeping) is the herb's most common side effect. Others include menstrual problems, breast pain, increased heart rate, high or low blood pressure, headache, loss of appetite, and digestive problems. Some evidence suggests that Asian ginseng might affect blood sugar.

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Birthday: 1996-01-14

Address: 8381 Boyce Course, Imeldachester, ND 74681

Phone: +3571286597580

Job: Product Banking Analyst

Hobby: Cosplaying, Inline skating, Amateur radio, Baton twirling, Mountaineering, Flying, Archery

Introduction: My name is Kimberely Baumbach CPA, I am a gorgeous, bright, charming, encouraging, zealous, lively, good person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.