Organic–inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: A comprehensive review of current trends, advances, and future perspectives (2023)

Table of Contents
Coordination Chemistry Reviews Abstract Graphical abstract Introduction Section snippets Mechanism of synthesis Classification of HNFs HNF synthesis strategy Modification of HNFs Potential applications of HNFs Conclusion and perspectives Declaration of Competing Interest Acknowledgments References (227) Process Biochem. Enzyme Microb. Technol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Chem. Eng. J. Enzyme Microb. Technol. Food Chem. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces Enzyme Microb. Technol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Chemosphere Enzyme Microb. Technol. Enzyme Microb. Technol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Sens. Actuators B Biosens. Bioelectron. Sens. Actuators B Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. J. Water Process Eng. Environ. Res. J. Hazard. Mater. Sci. Total Environ. J. Hazard. Mater. Biochem. Eng. J. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Biochem. Eng. J. J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym. Enzyme Microb. Technol. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. J. Biotechnol. Chem. Eng. J. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. Chem. Eng. J. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Biosens. Bioelectron. Coord. Chem. Rev. Coord. Chem. Rev. Chin. J. Chem. Eng. Food Chem. NanoImpact Chemosphere Drug Discov. Today Coord. Chem. Rev. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. Cited by (0) Recommended articles (6) Enzyme-based hybrid nanoflowers with high performances for biocatalytic, biomedical, and environmental applications Metal oxides confine single atoms toward efficient thermal catalysis In situ growth of hybrid nanoflowers on activated carbon fibers as electrodes for mediatorless enzymatic biofuel cells Synthesis of cross-linked protein-metal hybrid nanoflowers and its application in repeated batch decolorization of synthetic dyes Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: The known, the unknown, and the future Preparation and characterization of copper-Brevibacterium cholesterol oxidase hybrid nanoflowers FAQs

Coordination Chemistry Reviews

Volume 489,

15 August 2023

, 215191

Author links open overlay panel, , , , ,


Hierarchical nanocomposites with a flower-like morphology, referred to as organic–inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs), can be prepared using a combination of organic and inorganic components. HNFs show good potential as host platforms for immobilizing a large range of biomolecules. Over the past decade, HNFs have gained widespread interest due to their unique and excellent properties. Henceforth, a comprehensive review is needed to provide a timely update on the progress and challenges of these nanomaterials. In this review, a strategy for classifying HNFs based on their organic components to explore the commonalities and influence of various biomolecules in HNFs is first summarized. Next, the influence of the synthetic process on the structure–function relationship of HNFs is reviewed. The development of functionalized HNFs to effectively recycle nanomaterials and satisfy the requirements of specific applications is discussed. The extensive utilization of HNF materials in industrial biocatalysis, environmental bioremediation, antibacterial properties, and biosensors is then highlighted. In particular, this section focuses on the multiple functions of a series of HNF-based biosensors for the diagnosis and prevention of medical diseases. Finally, the remaining challenges and prospects for the further development of efficient and multi-functional HNF-based biocatalysts are presented. This topical review opens new avenues in numerous branches of biotechnology engineering, which may inspire new ideas and research directions.


Enzymes are biological catalysts, and they can be used as green and sustainable biocatalysts to catalyze a variety of specific chemical reactions. Enzymes play an important role in protein synthesis, fine chemical production, food processing, and other fields [1]. Compared with traditional catalysts, enzymes can be used under mild reaction conditions, have good substrate specificity, and are enantioselective [2], [3], [4]. However, like most biomolecules, enzymes also have various drawbacks that, due to various environmental considerations, limit their practical application [5]. To improve the suitability of enzymes for large-scale applications in various industries, immobilized enzyme technology has been developed to provide better reusability, enhanced operational stability, improved enantioselectivity, and more convenient product recovery. Enzyme immobilization is therefore becoming a more economical and feasible strategy [6], [7]. The exploration of powerful immobilized enzyme technology is a significant area of interest for researchers around the world.

In the new millennium, nanotechnology has shown great application prospects in various fields, including environmental remediation, biomedicine, biocatalysis, the development of biosensors, and the agrochemical and food industries [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]. A nanobiocatalyst is an engineered nanocarrier-enzyme composite material. Many functionalized nanostructured materials have been used as carriers for nanobiocatalysts. These include carbon nanotubes, organic–inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs), mesoporous/nanoporous carriers, magnetic nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanosheets [7] (Fig. 1). Composite catalysts consisting of enzymes and nanomaterials show significant advantages, such as improving biocatalytic performance and stability. Among them, HNFs show good application potential because they do not require labor-intensive processing, precision instruments, or toxic precursor materials [14]. The elegant approach of immobilizing enzymes by self-assembly coprecipitation was accidentally discovered by Zare’s group in 2012 [15]. Since then, HNFs have been widely investigated due to their simple and environmentally friendly preparation, enhanced activity, and good stability [16]. HNFs are hierarchical flower-like three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures composed of organic and inorganic constituent compounds. The flower-like morphology of HNFs provides them with a large surface-to-volume ratio and significantly improved catalytic activity. The high stability of HNFs is attributed to their inorganic components, whose structure protects the organic components [16], [17]. During HNF formation, different bivalent metal ions such as Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+, and Fe2+ are commonly used as inorganic elements in coprecipitation. Immobilization enables a variety of biomolecules to be used as organic components in HNFs, including enzymes, amino acids, natural polymers, DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules. As HNF technology has rapidly developed and our understanding of these compounds has deepened, the number of publications about HNFs has exponentially increased. While some excellent review articles about HNFs have been published [6], [14], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], they mainly focus on classification according to the inorganic components while ignoring the hidden commonalities and relationships of the organic components in HNFs. In addition, the modification of HNFs to improve their catalytic performance has been an increasing focus of HNF research in recent years. Consequently, a comprehensive review of the research hotspots and prospects of functionalized HNFs is urgently needed. Finally, the latest applications of HNFs need to be systematically summarized and classified for future research and development.

In this review, the recent progress in the common classification of HNFs and their application is summarized, with a special focus on the use of HNF composites in industrial biocatalysis, environmental bioremediation, antibacterial properties, and biosensors. The advantages of multi-component HNFs and functionalized HNFs in comparison to single-component materials are also emphasized. Finally, we provide an overview of the current status, difficulties, and prospects of HNF nanocomposites with the goal of inspiring interest in the future development of this field. We hope that this review will provide new ideas for readers studying biomolecules by providing an overview of the current progress in organic–inorganic HNFs and that researchers will be encouraged to develop new organic–inorganic nanofunctional materials with better performance.

Section snippets

Mechanism of synthesis

The synthesis mechanism of HNFs was first proposed by observing SEM images obtained during different periods in the HNF self-assembly process. HNF synthesis can be divided into three stages [15]. First, the nucleation stage is initiated when complexes of protein molecules and metal ions are formed via the coordination of amide groups in the protein skeletons. This provides nucleation points for the nucleation of primary metal phosphate crystals. During the aggregation stage, the protein

Classification of HNFs

At present, different aspects of enzyme-inorganic HNFs have been discussed in some reviews, which have classified HNFs according to their inorganic components (namely, metal phosphates). However, this classification approach cannot be used to directly observe the advanced characteristics of HNFs with different kinds of enzymes. In this review, we classify HNFs according to their organic components to evaluate the commonality of this immobilization technique to an enzyme or a class of enzymes.

HNF synthesis strategy

Many organic–inorganic HNFs have been developed in the past decade, and countless research achievements have been reported by researchers during this period. With the gradual deepening of this research field, certain rules controlling the HNF synthesis process have been identified. For example, subtle differences in preparation processes will affect the HNF flower morphology. These include the type and concentration of the organic component, the choice of metal ion, the reaction time, the pH,

Modification of HNFs

The widespread industrial application of organic–inorganic HNFs is hindered by their low mechanical strength, low loading capacity, and poor recyclability. Therefore, researchers are committed to developing new and improved strategies, such as supported HNFs, embedded HNFs, magnetic HNFs, and chemically modified HNFs, to coordinate powerful and recyclable protein-inorganic HNFs. These strategies could effectively improve the shortcomings of HNFs and lead to their widespread utilization.

Potential applications of HNFs

As discussed in the previous section, the immobilization of many enzymes has been successfully achieved for various HNF systems. The development and characterization of these nanobiocatalysts will provide useful insight for their use in various applications. An increasing number of routine studies have shown that the significant enhancement of enzyme properties enables their participation in various biocatalytic processes. In the following sections, representative examples of the utilization of

Conclusion and perspectives

Since the accidental discovery of the biomineralization method for the synthesis of nanoflowers by self-assembly, widespread interest in studying many different HNFs has grown. In recent years, HNFs have been demonstrated to be broad-spectrum, efficient, and economical biochemical materials. In addition, the application of HNFs has been extended to industrial catalysis, bioremediation, antimicrobial synthesis, biosensor design, and medical treatment. However, there are still some research gaps

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research & Developmental Program of China (2021YFC2100300) and the Beijing Nova Program (Z201100006820035).

References (227)

  • C. Altinkaynak et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • C. Altinkaynak et al.



  • I. Ocsoy et al.

    Enzyme Microb. Technol.


  • C. Yang et al.

    Enzyme Microb. Technol.


  • D. Talens-Perales et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • V. Kumar et al.

    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.


  • S.S. Nadar et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • Q. Wei et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • J. Guo et al.

    Sens. Actuators B


  • W. Li et al.

    Biosens. Bioelectron.


  • B.S. Batule et al.

    Sens. Actuators B


  • H. Jafari-Nodoushan et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • M. Kiani et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • K.A. Al-Maqdi et al.

    J. Water Process Eng.


  • Z. Han et al.

    Environ. Res.


  • M. Luo et al.

    J. Hazard. Mater.


  • M. Fu et al.

    Sci. Total Environ.


  • S.K.S. Patel et al.

    J. Hazard. Mater.


  • P. Zhu et al.

    Biochem. Eng. J.


  • A. Wang et al.

    J. Ind. Eng. Chem.


  • C. Li et al.

    Biochem. Eng. J.


  • Y. Li et al.

    J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym.


  • H.R. Lee et al.

    Enzyme Microb. Technol.


  • W. Jiang et al.

    J. Colloid Interface Sci.


  • C. Altinkaynak et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • K. Li et al.

    J. Biotechnol.


  • B. Zhang et al.

    Chem. Eng. J.


  • H. Jafari-Nodoushan et al.

    Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.


  • M. Zhang et al.

    Chem. Eng. J.


  • M. Bilal et al.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


  • J. Zhu et al.

    Biosens. Bioelectron.


  • J. Cui et al.

    Coord. Chem. Rev.


  • Y. Li et al.

    Coord. Chem. Rev.


  • S.S. Hassani et al.

    Chin. J. Chem. Eng.


  • S. Sahani et al.

    Food Chem.


  • A. Acharya et al.



  • D.M. Salama et al.



  • D. Sarmah et al.

    Drug Discov. Today


  • M. Bilal et al.

    Coord. Chem. Rev.


  • S. Dube et al.

    Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.


  • Cited by (0)

    Recommended articles (6)

    • Research article

      Enzyme-based hybrid nanoflowers with high performances for biocatalytic, biomedical, and environmental applications

      Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Volume 416, 2020, Article 213342

      Enzyme-based hybrid nanoflowers (EHNFs) provide a way to immobilize the enzymes without harsh conditions and mass transfer limitations, as well as promote the performances of the enzymes. This kind of immobilization attracted a considerable interest in further developing the application of enzymatic reactions. Therefore, the comprehensive understanding of the preparation, micro-structure, and catalytic behavior of EHNFs is critical for their better application. In this review, a wide variety of EHNFs in terms of synthesis, categories, morphologies and their applications in biocatalytic, biomedical, environment and bioenergy are introduced. Additionally, we discuss the future trends and perspectives of EHNFs in order to offer rational suggestions for the future researches and developments of these promising biocatalysts.

    • Research article

      Metal oxides confine single atoms toward efficient thermal catalysis

      Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Volume 488, 2023, Article 215189

      Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have drawn the attention of material scientists due to their high atomic-scale utilization efficiency and excellent thermal catalytic activity and selectivity. Metal oxides stand out as one of the most appealing candidates among the viable scaffold materials for anchoring single atoms due to their compositional and structural flexibility and stability during the catalytic process even at high temperatures. Thus, enormous efforts have been devoted to preparing metal oxides that confine single atoms for thermal catalytic applications. This review summarizes extensive knowledge of metal oxides that confine single atoms in thermal catalytic reactions. The mechanisms of thermal catalytic oxidation over SACs are described first, followed by a review of thermal catalytic applications in selective hydrogenation, methane oxidation, carbon monoxide oxidation, NOx conversion, alcohol oxidation, and water gas shift reaction. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives for improving the catalytic activity and selectivity of SACs are well stated.

    • Research article

      In situ growth of hybrid nanoflowers on activated carbon fibers as electrodes for mediatorless enzymatic biofuel cells

      Materials Letters, Volume 281, 2020, Article 128662

      Hybrid nanoflowers (HnFs) are novel structures that comprise enzymes (laccase, glucose oxidase, or catalase) and Cu3(PO4)2-based crystals, which can directly in situ grow on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) for the preparation of electrodes (HnF/ACF) used in glucose biofuel cells. The HnF/ACF structures perform higher enzymatic activities (~4 times) and stability (~2 times) than the enzymes physically adsorbed on ACFs in distinct analyses such as epinephrine oxidation, H2O2 decomposition, and glucose oxidation. The power density of an HnF/ACF-based cell (50µWcm−2 for a glucose concentration of 50mM) is 3–5 times higher than that of a cell prepared from conventional enzyme immobilization routes, which can be sustained at up to 80% after one month of operation.

    • Research article

      Synthesis of cross-linked protein-metal hybrid nanoflowers and its application in repeated batch decolorization of synthetic dyes

      Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 347, 2018, pp. 442-450

      Herein, we report the preparation of a cross-linked protein-metal hybrid nanoflower (NF) system for laccase immobilization. The immobilized laccase showed effective encapsulation yield and activity recovery of 78.1% and 204%, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat Vmax−1) of cross-linked NF (CL-NF) was 2.2-fold more than that of free laccase. The CL-NF also exhibited significantly higher stability towards pH and temperature changes. It exhibited excellent storage stability and tolerance towards solvents and inhibitors as compared with the free enzyme. After 10 cycles of reuses, the NF and CL-NF laccase showed 41.2% and 92.3% residual activity, respectively. The CL-NF showed high oxidation potential, 265% that of the free enzyme, towards phenolic compounds. The CL-NF laccase retained the residual decolorization efficiency of up to 84.6% for synthetic dyes under repeated batch conditions of 10 cycles. These results suggested that the preparation of CL-NF is an effective approach to enhance the enzymatic properties and has great potential in many industrial applications.

    • Research article

      Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: The known, the unknown, and the future

      Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 309, 2022, Article 102780

      Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs) are hierarchical flower-shaped microstructures that are assembled by nanoscale petal-like nanosheets composed of both organic and inorganic constituents. Generally, inorganic parts of HNFs are transition metal phosphates and organic components are mostly enzymes and proteins; however, non-protein molecules could be also used as organic phase in some types of newly described HNFs. Recent findings indicate that they are constructed through the coordination between organic and inorganic components. HNFs are mainly used for efficient biocatalysis and highly sensitive biosensing, while they have also some other noteworthy applications such as antimicrobial agents, antigen careers, and delivery platforms for anticancer drugs. It is believed that the high surface-to-volume ratio of HNFs could tackle mass transfer limitations leading to enhance the activity of their organic constituents. The environment-friendly route of synthesis and stabilization of biomolecules upon storage are the advantages of enzyme-based HNFs. In the present review, the focuses are on designs, preparations, formation mechanisms, and remarkable applications of the conventional forms and also magnetic, multi-component, and enzyme-free HNFs. Considering the fact that HNFs are in the early stages of development, the unknown aspects and future directions of research in this field are also discussed.

    • Research article

      Preparation and characterization of copper-Brevibacterium cholesterol oxidase hybrid nanoflowers

      International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126, 2019, pp. 539-548

      Brevibacterium cholesterol oxidase (COD)-Cu hybrid nanoflowers were prepared, optimized and characterized for structural and catalytic properties. Regarding scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays, COD molecules were successfully encapsulated with Cu3(PO4)2·3H2O based hybrid nanoflowers. After immobilization in hybrid nanoflowers, the interaction between COD and flavo-cofactor (FAD) was enhanced; and regarding to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay, the Tm value of immobilized COD was increased from 60.5 °C (free enzyme) to 138.49 °C (nanoflowers). Additionally, in activity assay, Cu-COD nanoflowers revealed improved resistance to temperature and pH. After 10 times of recycling, approximately 70% of initial activity of Cu-COD nanoflowers was maintained, while the free COD was inactivated after 3 times of recycling. Furthermore, using cholesterol as substrate, in n-octane/water biphasic reaction system, the stability of Cu-COD nanoflowers was significantly promoted, and the initial conversion ration could be over two times as that of free enzyme. In brief, the hybrid nanoflowers dramatically enhanced the structural and thermo stability, the tolerance to biphasic mixture, and the catalytic efficiency of COD; and Cu-COD nanoflowers should be of great potential in the bioconversion of sterol derivatives.

    View full text

    © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    What are the different types of inorganic materials used for the synthesis of hybrid nano bio assemblies? ›

    Hybrid nanomaterials contain two or more different components, typically inorganic components (metal ions, metal clusters or particles, salts, oxides, sulfides, non-metallic elements and their derivatives, etc.)

    What is hybrid organic inorganic material? ›

    According to the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), a hybrid material is that composed of an intimate mixture of inorganic components, organic components, or both types of components which usually interpenetrate on scales of less than 1 μm [1].

    What are the different types of Nanoflowers? ›

    The five major types of hybrid nanoflowers are discussed, i.e., copper–protein, calcium–protein, and manganese–protein hybrid nanoflowers, copper–DNA hybrid nanoflowers, and capsular hybrid nanoflowers.

    What is the structure of a Nanoflower? ›

    Nanoflowers are composed of several layers of petals to encompass a larger surface area in a small structure for multiple applications in catalysis, biosensors and delivery of drugs (Figure 1).

    What are four types of inorganic molecule that are important for life? ›

    The following section examines the four groups of inorganic compounds essential to life: water, salts, acids, and bases.

    What are the examples of organic and inorganic nanoparticles? ›

    Inorganic nanomaterials include examples of gold nanoparticles (AuNP),6 mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP),7 quantum dots (QD), carbon nanotubes (CNT),8 etc. Moreover, common organic nanomaterials include liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, etc.

    What are the example of organic inorganic materials? ›

    Fats, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, enzymes, proteins, and hydrocarbon fuels are examples of organic molecules. Non-metals, salts, metals, acids, bases, and things derived from a single element are examples of inorganic compounds.

    What are examples of organic inorganic compounds? ›

    Table 1: Organic Compounds vs. Inorganic Compounds
    Organic CompoundsInorganic Compounds
    Examplescarbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, urea, carbon tetrachloridesodium chloride, brass, glass, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, thiocyanates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water
    6 more rows

    What are the four types of organic material? ›

    Organic compounds essential to human functioning include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. These compounds are said to be organic because they contain both carbon and hydrogen.

    What are Nanoflowers used for? ›

    Nanoflowers are flower-shaped nanocrystals that have found interesting applications in optoelectronics, catalysis, and analytical chemistry due to large surface-to-volume ratio and high surface roughness [163].

    What are the four 4 types of nanomaterials? ›

    There are four main types of intentionally produced nanomaterials: carbon-based, metal-based, dendrimers, and nanocomposites.

    How do you see the future of nanotechnology in our society? ›

    In the future, nanotechnology could also enable objects to harvest energy from their environment. New nano-materials and concepts are currently being developed that show potential for producing energy from movement, light, variations in temperature, glucose and other sources with high conversion efficiency.

    How are Nanoflowers formed? ›

    Gold nanoflowers are formed due to the suppressed ripening if the reaction being carried out under basic condition (pH 7.0−11.0). The nanoflowers are transformed into spherical nanocrystals attributed to the accelerated ripening related to the chlorine ions in the solution.

    What is graphene nanotechnology? ›

    Graphene has emerged as one of the most promising nanomaterials because of its unique combination of exceptional properties: it is not only the thinnest but also one of the strongest materials; it conducts heat better than all other materials; it is an excellent conductor of electricity; it is optically transparent, ...

    What are quantum dots in nanotechnology? ›

    Quantum dots are tiny particles or nanocrystals of a semiconducting material with diameters in the range of 2-10 nanometers (10-50 atoms). They were first discovered in 1980.

    What are 7 examples of inorganic? ›

    Examples include the allotropes of carbon (graphite, diamond, buckminsterfullerene, etc.), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbides, and the following salts of inorganic anions: carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and thiocyanates.

    What are 3 inorganic compounds that are essential to life? ›

    Inorganic compounds essential to human functioning include water, salts, acids, and bases. These compounds are inorganic; that is, they do not contain both hydrogen and carbon.

    What are 5 inorganic chemicals you use in your daily life? ›

    Examples of common everyday inorganic compounds are water, sodium chloride (salt), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), calcium carbonate (dietary calcium source), and muriatic acid (industrial-grade hydrochloric acid). Inorganic compounds typically have high melting points and variable degrees of electrical conductivity.

    What are 3 examples of nanoparticles? ›

    Some examples of semiconductor nanoparticles are GaN, GaP, InP, InAs from group III-V, ZnO, ZnS, CdS, CdSe, CdTe are II-VI semiconductors and silicon and germanium are from group IV. Semiconductor nanoparticles are applied to photocatalysis, electronics devices, nanophotonics and water splitting applications.

    What are 3 examples of inorganic? ›

    Inorganic substances are a group of chemicals that contain no carbon. Examples include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, all metals, and most elements (such as calcium).

    What are 3 major examples of inorganic molecules? ›

    Carbon compounds such as carbides (e.g., silicon carbide [SiC2]), some carbonates (e.g., calcium carbonate [CaCO3]), some cyanides (e.g., sodium cyanide [NaCN]), graphite, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide are classified as inorganic.

    What are 5 examples of organic materials? ›

    Common categories include Leather and Skin, parchment, gut, hides, fur and hair, wool and silk, feathers and quills, baleen, and tortoiseshell. Ivory, bone, antler, and shell may also contain protein components. Organic Polymers are derived from fossil fuels or other oils.

    What are the 4 organic nutrients? ›

    The organic nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins. When we look at their basic chemical structure, we see that they all contain carbon, usually shown as a 'C.

    What are 4 inorganic compounds? ›

    In general, there are four groups of inorganic compound types. They are divided into bases, acids, salts, and water. Note that these are the broadest categories of inorganic compounds.

    Is DNA an organic molecule? ›

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an organic chemical that contains genetic information and instructions for protein synthesis.

    What are the uses of organic and inorganic compounds? ›

    Organic and inorganic compounds play important role in industries such as the rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings, dyestuffs, and agrichemicals industries. The foundations of biochemistry, biotechnology, and medicine are built on organic compounds and their role in life processes.

    What is the most common organic material? ›

    The two most abundant organic substances on Earth, cellulose and starch.

    What are the 4 most common organic elements? ›

    Four elements, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, are the major components of most organic compounds.

    What is the best organic matter? ›

    Good organic amendments for garden soils include wood by-products such as sawdust and bark mulch, rotted manure, grass or wheat straw and compost. Inorganic amendments include pumice, perlite, vermiculite and sand. Any composted material that has been reduced to humus is a good soil amendment.

    What is the most commonly used nanomaterials? ›

    Silver is the most common nano-material used in products, followed by carbon-based nano-materials and metal oxides such as TiO2. Nanotechnology is going to pave the way for a revolution in materials, information and communication technology, medicine, genetics, etc.

    What are 4 applications of nanomaterials? ›

    Nanomaterials can be used in different applications such as in medicine, electronic device, sunscreens, military applications, photovoltaic cells, paints, catalysts, etc.

    What is nanotechnology used for in medicine? ›

    Nanotechnology has great promise in manipulating things at the atomic level to change many parts of medical treatment, such as diagnosis, monitoring for diseases, operating equipment, regenerative medicine, developing vaccines, and medication delivery.

    Are there any potential negative effects of nanotechnology? ›

    Materials which by themselves are not very harmful could be toxic if they are inhaled in the form of nanoparticles. The effects of inhaled nanoparticles in the body may include lung inflammation and heart problems.

    How nanotechnology can change your life? ›

    In the future, nanotechnology might help us make electrical lines, solar cells, and biofuels more efficient, and make nuclear reactors safer. Nanotechnology might lead to huge advances in health care, improving methods for detecting and treating diseases like cancer.

    What are the pitfalls of nanotechnology? ›

    Potential disadvantages include economic disruption and possible threats to security, privacy, health and the environment.

    What would graphene oxide do to the human body? ›

    Graphene oxide induces cell toxicity through plasma membrane damage, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA damage.

    Is graphene good for the human body? ›

    Graphene oxide affects the body by causing various adverse impacts such as abnormal activation of immune cells and thrombogenicity. This is because graphene oxide has a bi-dimensional structure that generates unique interaction with biological membranes and blood proteins in the body, triggering severe effects.

    What does graphene do to lungs? ›

    In summary, these different in vitro data confirm that GO and other graphene based materials can cause DNA damages in lung epithelial cells and that these effects are often associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Is quantum dot magnetic? ›

    Graphene quantum dots with the high edge-to-area ratio have possibly substantial spin polarized edge states, which theoretically can generate fascinating magnetic properties. The magnetism of well-defined graphene quantum dots is relevant with both fundamental physics and potential applications in spintronics.

    What does a quantum dots look like? ›

    Quantum dots are tiny specks of material, so small that some people say they have no dimensions. They exist as points of materials, typically 1/10,000 the size of a human hair. Materials this small are called nanoparticles. Quantum dots are nanoparticles made from semiconducting materials.

    What does it mean if the quantum dots colored blue? ›

    Electrons in a quantum dot generating light. The smaller the nanoparticle, the higher the energy difference between the valence band and conductance band, which results in a deeper blue color.

    What are inorganic nanostructured materials? ›

    Inorganic Nanostructures
    • Thermoelectrics.
    • Graphene.
    • Carbon Nanotubes.
    • Thermoelectric Materials.
    • Titanium Dioxide.
    • Nanowire.
    • Graphene Oxide.
    • Nanomaterial.

    What are the different types of nano material synthesis process? ›

    The nanomaterials can be synthesized using two prominent approaches. They are top-down and bottom-up approaches. In top-down approaches, the bulk materials are mechanically machined and converted into fine particles in nano dimensions.

    What are hybrid materials in nanotechnology? ›

    Hybrid materials are composites made by synergistic combination of organic and inorganic components at the nanometer or molecular level, a feature that makes them different from traditional composites where the constituents are at the macroscopic (micrometer to millimeter) level.

    What are the types of inorganic polymers? ›

    Examples of inorganic polymers include polysilanes (Si–Si bonds), polysiloxanes (Si–O bonds, or silicones), polysilazanes (Si–N bonds), polysulfides (S–S bonds), polyphosphazenes (P–N bonds), polyborazylenes (B–N bonds), and polythiazyls (S–N bonds).

    What are 3 examples of inorganic substances? ›

    Inorganic substances are a group of chemicals that contain no carbon. Examples include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, all metals, and most elements (such as calcium).

    What are the four types of inorganic? ›

    In general, there are four groups of inorganic compound types. They are divided into bases, acids, salts, and water. Note that these are the broadest categories of inorganic compounds.

    What are the applications of inorganic nanoparticles? ›

    The different inorganic nanoparticles such as titanium oxide, zinc oxide, copper oxide, silver, and gold are the most preferred inorganic nanoparticles used in food packaging. Food systems can benefit from using these packaging materials and improve physicochemical and functional properties.

    What is a potential negative impact of nanotechnology on the environment? ›

    Nanomaterials reaching in the land have the potential to contaminate soil, and migrate into surface and ground waters. Particles in solid wastes, waste water effluents, direct discharges, or accidental spillages can be transported to aquatic systems by wind or rainwater runoff.

    How do you make nanoparticles at home? ›

    If you have a microwave, honey, and molasses, you can pretty much make these particles at home,” Pan said. “You just mix these two together and cook it for a few minutes, and you get something that looks like char, but that is nanoparticles with high luminescence [they glow].

    What are the disadvantages of hybrid materials? ›

    These composite materials used in so many areas like aerospace, automotive, construction and household purposes also due to their high mechanical properties. But for these composites there are some drawbacks like high cost, high density, high weight.

    What is an example of a hybrid nanomaterial? ›

    The most typical examples of hybrid nanomaterials are organized nanoparticles with a complex composition (metal, oxides, chalcogenides, etc.) and coordination polymers.

    What are two hybrid composites examples? ›

    A few examples of hybrid composites include kenaf–aramid with Kevlar [11], woven jute/glass fabric [12], and sisal fiber-reinforced polyester composites with the addition of carbon [13].

    What are the 4 organic polymers? ›

    There are four basic kinds of biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. These polymers are composed of different monomers and serve different functions.

    What are 5 types of inorganic compounds? ›

    Examples of common everyday inorganic compounds are water, sodium chloride (salt), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), calcium carbonate (dietary calcium source), and muriatic acid (industrial-grade hydrochloric acid). Inorganic compounds typically have high melting points and variable degrees of electrical conductivity.

    What are the four main organic polymers? ›

    The four main classes of biological polymers are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

    Top Articles
    Latest Posts
    Article information

    Author: Virgilio Hermann JD

    Last Updated: 19/06/2023

    Views: 5780

    Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

    Reviews: 88% of readers found this page helpful

    Author information

    Name: Virgilio Hermann JD

    Birthday: 1997-12-21

    Address: 6946 Schoen Cove, Sipesshire, MO 55944

    Phone: +3763365785260

    Job: Accounting Engineer

    Hobby: Web surfing, Rafting, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Ghost hunting, Swimming, Amateur radio

    Introduction: My name is Virgilio Hermann JD, I am a fine, gifted, beautiful, encouraging, kind, talented, zealous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.