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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.09.145Get rights and content
Synergistic fungal pretreatment involving white-rot and brown-rot fugal pretreatment has shown great potential for enhancing the yield of sugars from biomass time-effectively and environmentally benign. In this work, the effects of this integrated fungal pretreatment on lignin characteristics and thermal behavior of corncob were examined in the view of whole plant valorization. The results show that an efficient deconstruction of lignin was achieved by white-rot fungus, and subsequent brown-rot fungus promoted the preferential breakdown of guaiacyl units, further enhancing lignin extraction efficiency (62.3%). Consequently, less phenolic hydroxyl, methoxyl, tricin, ester-linked p-coumaric acid, more carboxylic acid, ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units, β-O-4′ linkage and molecular weight were found in W-BL. Thermal stability was improved and the increased phenol and alkyl-phenols contents in pyrolysis products demonstrated that synergistic fungal pretreatment definitely improved the lignin oil quality. These discoveries provide new insights into set strategy for microbial screening, pretreatment and lignin processing.
Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals as an alternative to fossil resources due to its abundance, renewable and cost-efficient. The existing second-generation integrated biologically based biorefinery converts polysaccharides components in lignocellulose into ethanol, butanol, and other prospective fuels (Naik et al., 2010). Substantial lignin are produced as enzymatic hydrolysis residues and underutilized during the processing (Ragauskas et al., 2014). Lignin has been recognized one of the most natural recalcitrant factors and plays a negative role in efficient biomass utilization. A fundamental understanding of the chemical structures and properties associated with lignin by-products is of significance to off-set the cost of biorefinery from biochemical route and valorization perspective.
Lignin is a renewable aromatic polymer derived from three aromatic alcohols namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols with aryl-ether (β-O-4′, α-O-4′, α,β-diaryl ether) and carbon-carbon (β-β′, β-5′, β-1′) linkages. In herbaceous plants, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoid are also incorporated into lignin and form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) and 4′-O-β ether substructure, respectively (del Rio et al., 2012, Lan et al., 2015). Previously, lignin inherent structural characteristics and contents have proven influential for altering enzymatic deconstruction (Studer et al., 2011). For instance, high syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) ratio accompanying with high proportion of labile β-O-4′ linkages in lignin leads to less lignin-enzyme interactions and high susceptibility to hydrolysis (Li and Zheng, 2017). Multiple strategies have emerged for plant engineering and functionality tailor with desirable chemical and physical properties of lignin (Fu et al., 2011, Wilkerson et al., 2014). For a specific lignocellulose, pretreatment is the key step to reduce lignin content and modify the structure to alleviate the recalcitrance.
Biological pretreatment using different kinds of fungus has provoked extensive research in the past few decades due to less energy consuming, more environmentally benign, lower cost, and inhibitor when compare to chemical pretreatments (Binod et al., 2011, Salvachúa et al., 2011, Sindhu et al., 2016). Recently, synergistic fungal-chemical or fungal-fungal pretreatments have been proposed to reduce the time consumption, enzyme dosages, and improve the cellulose digestibility. For instance, hydrolysis yield of 60.26% was achieved after combination of 28 days of white rot fungal incubation and liquid hot water pretreatment for Populus (Wang et al., 2012). In our previous work, 83% of glucose yield was obtained from short time synergistic white-rot (W) Trametes orientalis (Cui6300) and brown-rot fungus (B) Fomitopsis pinicola (Cui12330) pretreated corncob (Wang et al., 2017). To date, there have been numerous parameters (strain, culture conditions, etc.) proposed to affect biological pretreatment efficiency (Sindhu et al., 2016). Unfortunately though, no clear picture has emerged about how the lignin is modified, while neglecting the potential of lignin by-products. More importantly, characteristics modification of lignin causing by pretreatment have been demonstrated to improve lignin properties, such as anti-oxidant activity and pyrolysis behavior (Duan et al., 2018, Qin et al., 2018). Understanding the fate of lignin by-products will be of great interest and value in helping to set strategy for microbial screening, pretreatment and lignin processing.
In this study, cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), one of the best matrices for the structural analysis of lignin was isolated from raw and fungal pretreated corncob. To the best of our knowledge, comprehensive investigation of the effect of synergistic T. orientalis-F. pinicola (W-B) fungal pretreatment on the characteristics and thermal behavior of lignin has not been done previously. The extraction efficiency and chemical composition, functional groups, molecular weight distribution, hydroxyl group contents and composition, structural information, and thermal stability of lignin fractions were evaluated and compared. Lignin from single white-rot (W) fungal pretreated corncob was also isolated to understand the process. To further explore the synergistic benefits of W-B fungal pretreatment on oil quality, lignin pyrolysis was conducted.
Corncob was harvested from a field in Zibo, Shandong province. It was cut down into slices firstly and then ground with a FZ120 plant grinder (Truelab, Shanghai, China) to pass through an 80-mesh screen. The obtained powder was exhaustive extracted with toluene/ethanol (2:1, v/v) and oven-dried for 24 h at 45 °C. The pre-extracted samples were kept at 4 °C in a sealed plastic bag. White rot fungus Trametes orientalis (Cui6319) and brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola (Cui12330) used for
Extraction efficiency and carbohydrate composition
Lignin extraction efficiency is influenced by raw materials and the isolation process. The preparation of lignin was therefore conducted under the same conditions to ensure the validity of comparison. To extract more representative lignin from plant cell wall in higher yield, the raw and pretreated samples were all ball-milled for 12 h. The yields and carbohydrate composition in lignin fractions from raw, W pretreated, and synergetic W-B pretreated corncob are given in Table 1. As can be seen,
This work shows the effects of efficient short time white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the structural characteristics and thermal behavior of lignin from corncob. Synergistic fungal pretreatment facilitated separation of lignin. Compared to raw lignin, more linear structure with lower phenolic OH contents, higher COOH contents and S/G ratio, less ester-linked PCA and LCC linkages were found in methoxyl-deficient W-BL. Besides, the thermal stability and conversion of lignin were
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Project No.: BLX201718) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0600204 and 2017YFD0601004).
- T.T. You et al.
Structural elucidation of lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) preparations and lignin from Arundo donax Linn
Ind. Crop. Prod.
- W. Wang et al.
Combination of biological pretreatment with liquid hot water pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of populus tomentosa
- S.N. Sun et al.
Effect of ionic liquid/organic solvent pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob for bioethanol production. Part 1: structural characterization of the lignins
Ind. Crop Prod.
- R. Sindhu et al.
Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass-an overview
- L. Shao et al.
Fast pyrolysis of kraft lignins fractionated by ultrafiltration
J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.
- D. Salvachúa et al.
Fungal pretreatment: an alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw
- Z. Qin et al.
Structural characterization of Chinese quince fruit lignin pretreated with enzymatic hydrolysis
- S.N. Naik et al.
Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
- X. Li et al.
Lignin-enzyme interaction: mechanism, mitigation approach, modeling, and research prospects
- A. Guerra et al.
Molecular weight distribution of wood components extracted from pinus taeda biotreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
Enzyme Microbiol. Technol.
Detailed kinetic modeling of the thermal degradation of lignins
Microwave-assisted acid pretreatment of alkali lignin: effect on characteristics and pyrolysis behavior
Characterisation of structure-dependent functional properties of lignin with infrared spectroscopy
Ind. Crop Prod.
Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production
Biological delignification of plant components by the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus
Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.
Structural changes in wheat straw components during decay by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi in relation to improvement of digestibility for ruminants
J. Sci. Food Agric.
Alterations in structure, chemistry, and biodegradability of grass lignocellulose treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Quantification of lignin-carbohydrate linkages with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy
Catalytic depolymerisation of isolated lignins to fine chemicals using a Pt/alumina catalyst: Part 1-impact of the lignin structure
Structural characterization of wheat straw lignin as revealed by analytical pyrolysis, 2D-NMR, and reductive cleavage methods
J. Agric. Food Chem.
An efficient approach for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate from lignin by alkali-halophile Halomonas alkalicola M2
2023, Industrial Crops and Products
Lignin bioconversion into polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) has emerged as a promising valorization, however, it is suffering from inadequate conversion efficiency. Herein, an efficient strategy for addressing this challenge by employing an alkali-halophilic strain Halomonas alkalicola M2 is developed. Up to 58.5% of lignin is degraded when incubates in the non-sterilized lignin (NSL) medium under a glucose concentration of 1.055g/L, peptone concentration of 0.596g/L, and incubation time of 6.89 d, demonstrating enhanced proficiency compared to thermally sterilized lignin (TSL) method due to the improved cell growth, lignin-degrading enzyme activities, and secreted protein contents. Consequently, PHB production demonstrates a 50% increase using NSL method compared to TSL method. A separate route of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) is proposed to further improve the PHB production, resulting in a record yield of PHB which is 1.89g/L. This work creatively develops a non-sterilization strategy to improve PHB production from lignin, showing great potential for promoting biological lignin valorization.
Sustainable and multifunctional cellulose-lignin films with excellent antibacterial and UV-shielding for active food packaging
2023, Food Hydrocolloids
Citation Excerpt :
A total of 32 cumulative scans were taken in the transmittance mode, with a resolution of 4 cm−1 in the region of 3725-650 cm−1. 31P NMR spectrum of lignin (phenolated lignin) was performed on a 400 MHz spectrometer (AVIII, Bruker, Germany) according to our previous report (You, Li, Wang, Zhang, & Xu, 2019). The hydroxyl groups in lignin (phenolated lignin) was phosphorylated by 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (TMDP) before testing.
The natural biopolymers hold substantial prospects as food packaging materials due to the integrated advantages of excellent film-forming properties, biodegradability and appropriate mechanical properties. However, it remains a challenge to simultaneously endow antimicrobial, UV-shielding, water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of films. Herein, sustainable and multifunctional films were fabricated by constructing ε-polylysine (ε-PL) antimicrobial surface on the phenolated lignin/cellulose films (RCPL30). It is found that the fine control of electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding in anionic phenolated lignin/cellulose and cationic ε-PL is efficient for tailoring the structure and films performance. The addition of ε-PL effectively enhanced the antibacterial property, hydrophobicity, water vapor and oxygen barrier ability of the phenolated lignin/cellulose films. Antibacterial cellulose-lignin films with a high lignin content (30%) were developed. In particular, the bactericidal rate reached almost 100% when the ε-PL concentration was 3% (LRCPL30-3). The water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of LRCPL30-3 were as low as (3.21±0.06)×10−11gm−1 s−1 Pa−1, (4.15±0.13)×10−16cm3cm/cm2 s Pa, respectively. Moreover, the phenolated lignin provided an exceptional UV shielding properties (100% for UVB and 99.91% for UVA for LRCPL30-3 sample) with high thermal stability and antioxidant activities. More importantly, the as prepared LRCPL30-3 still showed high tensile strength (75.90MPa). Based on these outstanding properties, LRCPL30-3 were used for shrimp package, which effectively extended shelf-life. Overall, the study highlights the benefits of biopolymers valorization and provides evidence of potential applicability of sustainable films (specially LRCPL30-3) as candidates for active food packaging.(Video) C2ST: Agriculture's Role in the Energy Future 2008 - Mark Matlock
Journey of lignin from a roadblock to bridge for lignocellulose biorefineries: A comprehensive review
2023, Science of the Total Environment
The grave concerns arisen as a result of environmental pollution and diminishing fossil fuel reserves in the 21st century have shifted the focus on the use of sustainable and environment friendly alternative resources. Lignocellulosic biomass constituted by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin is an abundantly available natural bioresource. Lignin, a natural biopolymer has over the years gained much importance as a high value material with commercial importance. The present review provides an in-depth knowledge on the journey of lignin from being considered a roadblock to a bridge connecting diverse industries with widescale applications. The successful valorization of lignin for the production of bio-based platform chemicals and fuels has been the subject of intensive investigation. A deeper understanding of lignin characteristics and factors governing the biomass conversion into valuable products can support improved biomass consumption. The components of lignocellulosic biomass might be totally transformed into a variety of value-added products with the improvements in bioprocess techniques that valorize lignin. In this review, the recent advances in the lignin extraction and depolymerization methods that may help in achieving the cost-economics of the bioprocess are summarized and compared. The industrial potential of lignin-derived products such as aromatics, biopolymers, biofuels and agrochemicals are also outlined. Additionally, assessment of the recent research trends in lignin valorization into value-added chemicals has been done and present scenario of technological-industrial applications of lignin with economic perspectives is highlighted.
Nature-inspired pretreatment of lignocellulose – Perspective and development
2023, Bioresource Technology
As sustainability gains increasing importance in addition to cost-effectiveness as a criterion for evaluating engineering systems and practices, biological processes for lignocellulose pretreatment have attracted growing attention. Biological systems such as white and brown rot fungi and wood-consuming insects offer fascinating examples of processes and systems built by nature to effectively deconstruct plant cell walls under environmentally benign and energy-conservative environments. Research in the last decade has resulted in new knowledge that advanced the understanding of these systems, provided additional insights into these systems' functional mechanisms, and demonstrated various applications of these processes. The new knowledge and insights enable the adoption of a nature-inspired strategy aiming at developing technologies that are informed by the biological systems but superior to them by overcoming the inherent weakness of the natural systems. This review discusses the nature-inspired perspective and summarizes related advancements, including the evolution from biological systems to nature-inspired processes, the features of biological pretreatment mechanisms, the development of nature-inspired pretreatment processes, and future perspective. This work aims to highlight a different strategy in the research and development of novel lignocellulose pretreatment processes and offer some food for thought.
Cleaner 2,3-butanediol production from unpretreated lignocellulosic biomass by a newly isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae PX14
2023, Chemical Engineering Journal
Bioconversion lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a sustainable and energy-intensive practice, but its economic feasibility has been hindered by costly pretreatment and the cumbersome fermentation process. Herein, a lignocellulolytic strain Klebsiella pneumoniae PX14 is isolated from insect gut, showing effective degradation on unpretreated LCB with rates of 51.48% for cellulose, 62.13% for hemicellulose, and 41.42% for lignin, while with a low 2,3-BDO titer of 3.26g/L. Consequently, the secretory proteins of PX14 cultured on the bamboo biomass-containing medium are extracted for the construction of an enzyme cocktail with commercial cellulase. The designed enzyme cocktail achieves efficient saccharification of the unpretreated LCB, resulting in 42.90g/L reducing sugars released, which is significantly higher than that from the secretory protein or cellulase only. These high sugars titer is also effective conversion to 2,3-BDO of 19.11g/L titer by PX14 after further optimization. For the first time, the enzyme cocktail is tried for application in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of 2,3-BDO from unpretreated LCB. This fed-batch SSF resulted in 47.46g/L of 2,3-BDO with 0.36g/L/h productivity under high solid loading of 20% due to the high substrate concentration tolerance of PX14. Finally, whole-genome sequencing reveals the robustness of K. pneumoniae PX14 and its molecular mechanism for such a process. These results provide a robustness strain of K. pneumoniae PX14 and its novel application in SSF of 2,3-BDO from unpretreated LCB, showing a great breakthrough in this process.
Valorization of waste biomass through fungal technology: Advances, challenges, and prospects
2022, Industrial Crops and Products
The environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels have increased the worldwide need for biomass use. Fungal technology provides a gentle, environmentally friendly, low-cost solution for biomass conversion and is widely used in the production of chemicals and biofuels because of its advantages in lignin degradation, saccharification, fermentation, and lipid accumulation. The causes and consequences of using fungal technology in biomass conversion must be determined, to help us to understand the proper application of fungal technologies in biomass conversion. For this purpose, we reviewed the fungal types involved in biomass conversion, the advantages and limitations of fungal technology, and strategies for improvement. We systematically reviewed the advances in how these advantages and improvement strategies can be effectively combined in the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as alcohols, gas fuel, biodiesel, organic acids, spices, medicines, compost, and feed. The future directions based on fungi technology have also prospected. It is certain that strain screening, parameter optimization, coupling processes, and the introduction of genetic engineering throughout the application of fungal technology in biomass conversion. Fungal technology deserves more attention and further exploration as a promising sustainable biomass utilization strategy.
A microwave-assisted aqueous ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of Eucalyptus and its mechanism
Bioresource Technology, Volume 272, 2019, pp. 99-104
A novel pretreatment strategy based on combination of microwave and ionic liquid [TBA][OH] was developed for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of Eucalyptus sawdust. The sugar yield of pretreated sample achieved 410.67 mg/g in 48 h, which suffered from optimized microwave-assisted [TBA][OH] pretreatment. The work mechanism was illuminated by chemical composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C cross polarization/magic-angle spinning solid state NMR (13C solid NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The combined effect of microwave and [TBA][OH] leads to the violent deconstruction of lignin, removal of hemicelluloses, destruction of crystalline region and an eroded, pored and irregular micro-morphology. As a green, relatively inexpensive and high efficient pretreatment, microwave-assisted [TBA][OH] pretreatment has great potential in the field of bio-refinery.
Research article(Video) Lec 25 : Microorganisms, current industrial ethanol production technology
Mechanical fragmentation of corncob at different plant scales: Impact and mechanism on microstructure features and enzymatic hydrolysis
Bioresource Technology, Volume 205, 2016, pp. 159-165
In this work, corncob samples at different scales, i.e., plant scale (>1mm), tissue scale (500–100μm) and cellular scale (50–30μm), were produced to investigate the impact and mechanisms of different mechanical fragmentations on microstructure features and enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the microstructure features and enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob samples, either at a plant scale or tissue scale, did not change significantly. Conversely, corncob samples at a cellular scale exhibited some special properties, i.e., an increase in the special surface area with the inner mesopores and macropores exposed to the surface; breakage of crystalline cellulose and linkages in polysaccharides; and a higher proportion of polysaccharides on the surface, which significantly enhanced enzymatic digestibility resulting in a 98.3% conversion yield of cellulose to glucose which is the highest conversion ever reported. In conclusion, mechanical fragmentation at the cellular scale is an effective pretreatment for corncob.
The structural characterization and antioxidant properties of oil palm fronds lignin incorporated with p-hydroxyacetophenone
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130, 2019, pp. 947-957
This study reports on the effects of unmodified autohydrolyzed ethanol organosolv lignin (AH EOL) and modified autohydrolyzed ethanol organosolv lignin on the structural characteristics and antioxidant properties upon incorporation of p-hydroxyacetophenone (AHP EOL). The lignin samples isolated from black liquor of oil palm fronds (OPF) were evaluated and compared using various complementary analyses; FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, 2D-NMR spectroscopy (HMBC and HSQC), CHN, GPC, HPLC and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). Chemically modified organosolv lignin (AHP EOL) provided lignin with lower molecular weight (Mw), which has smaller fragments that leads to higher solubility rate in water in comparison to unmodified organosolv lignin, AH EOL (DAHP EOL: 19.8% > DAH EOL: 14.0%). It was evident that the antioxidant properties of modified organosolv lignin has better reducing power in comparison to the unmodified organosolv lignin. Therefore, the functionalization of lignin polymers enhanced their antioxidant properties and structural features towards a various alternative approach in lignin-based applications.
A sustainable approach for efficient conversion of lignin into biodiesel accompanied by biological pretreatment of corn straw
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 199, 2019, Article 111928
Lignin is the second-most abundant biopolymer on the Earth and it is hard to valorize without pretreatment due to its inherent heterogeneity and recalcitrance. Nowadays, it is necessary to develop effective innovative methods for lignin degradation and efficient utilization. In the present study, the lignolytic bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis LZ-K2 was isolated from rotten wood. The isolate showed high lipid production and high efficiency of lignin degradation. The lipid production of LZ-K2 grown in corn straw medium with alkali pretreatment, acid pretreatment, and without chemical pretreatment were 0.083 g/L, 0.069 g/L, and 0.072 g/L, respectively. Fatty acids (C14-C24), especially palmitic acid (C16:0; 38.9%), were also accumulated in the untreated corn straw cultures. Results confirmed that the enzyme system and Fenton reaction are the major pathways for lignin depolymerization. In addition, the presence of a critical lignin-degrading enzymes, other than cellulase and hemicellulase, was revealed by the genome analysis. Moreover, the proteome of LZ-K2 showed enzymes, mainly glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases, which are involved in the Fenton reaction and β-ketoadipate pathway. Unique enzymes of oleaginous microorganisms, such as acetyl CoA carboxylase, were also identified in LZ-K2. In conclusion, the present work provides a sustainable approach for efficient conversion of lignin into biodiesel with simultaneous biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses.
Structural characterization of lignin and its carbohydrate complexes isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126, 2019, pp. 376-384
Isolation of earth abundant biopolymer, Lignin, from Dendrocalamus sinicus and their structural properties were investigated to achieve its large-scale practical applications in value-added products. Two lignin fractions (MWL, DSL) were isolated with successive treatments of dioxane and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from dewaxed and ball milled bamboo (D. sinicus) sample. The two-step treatments yielded 52.1% lignin based on the total lignin content in the dewaxed bamboo sample. Spectroscopy analyses indicated that the isolated bamboo lignin was a typical grass lignin, consisting of p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl units. The major interunit linkages presented in the obtained bamboo lignin were β-O-4′ aryl ether linkages, together with lower amounts of β-β', β-5′, and β-1′ linkages. The tricin was detected to be linked to lignin polymer through the β-O-4′ linkage in the bamboo. In addition, phenyl glycoside and benzyl ether lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) linkages were clearly detected in bamboo (D. sinicus), whereas the γ-ester LCC linkages were ambiguous due to the overlapping NMR signals with other substructures. The detailed structural properties of the obtained lignin fraction together with the light-weight will benefit efficient utilization of natural polymers as a possibly large-scale bio-based precursor for making polymeric materials, biochemicals, functional carbon and biofuels, and multifunctional polymer nanocomposites.
High-potency white-rot fungal strains and duration of fermentation to optimize corn straw as ruminant feed
Bioresource Technology, Volume 312, 2020, Article 123512
Five white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Hericium erinaceus, Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina filiformis were studied (solid-state incubation and in vitro gas production) to determine lignin degradation and optimal duration of fermentation of corn straw. All fungi significantly decreased lignin, with optimal reductions after 28 d. Although cellulose also decreased, L. edodes and P. eryngii minimized these losses. In intro dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production of fermented corn straw decreased (P<0.001) as fermentation was prolonged, with improved rumen fermentability for all fungal treatments except F. filiformis. Total gas production in L. edodes did not decrease but peaked on day 28, whereas F. filiformis reduced methane emission. In conclusion, fermentation of corn straw with P. eryngii or L. edodes for 28d degraded lignin and improved nutritional value as ruminant feed.(Video) Lec 15 : Products and Commercial Success Stories
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