Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (2023)

Hu, L., Zhou, Y., Zhang, M., and Liu, R. (2012). "Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam," BioRes. 7(1), 554-564.

Abstract

Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w) and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), friability, and mechanical property tests. The experimental results showed the foam to have lower density, better toughness, and excellent thermal insulation compared to those of foams obtained from conventional resol resin. The properties of phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can comply with the required specifications for its practical utilization.

Download PDF

Full Article

CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF A LIGNOSULFONATE-BASED PHENOLIC FOAM

Lihong Hu,a,bYonghong Zhou,a,Meng Zhang,aand Ruijie Liua

Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w) and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), friability, and mechanical property tests. The experimental results showed the foam to have lower density, better toughness, and excellent thermal insulation compared to those of foams obtained from conventional resol resin. The properties of phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can comply with the required specifications for its practical utilization.

Keywords: Phenolated; Lignosulfonate; Phenolic foam; Characterization; Properties

Contact information: a: Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products, CAF; National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization; Key Lab. on Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province; Nanjing 210042, P.R.China; b: Institute of Forest New Technology, CAF, Beijing 100091, P.R.China, corresponding author:yhzhou1966@yahoo.com.cn

INTRODUCTION

Rigid foams are commercial materials of increasing interest. Foams based on metals, ceramics, or polymers are already in industrial production. Their application potential is growing with an average annual growth rate of 20% (Celzardet al.2010). For example, phenolic foams, compared with rigid plastic insulation materials such as polystyrene, polyurethane, and polyethylene, are preferred because of their outstanding fire and chemical resistance, their self-extinguishing character, as well as the absence of harmful smokes when exposed to flame (Auadet al.2007). Consequently, these advantages make it an excellent candidate where fire resistance is critical, such as frozen food industries, building materials, and aircraft, with promising developments in mater-ials and new processing techniques (Liet al.2003).

Phenol and formaldehyde are two main raw materials for phenolic foams production and currently are obtained from fossil resources. The rising cost and foreseeable future scarcity of petrochemicals have prompted researchers to evaluate phenolic foams, using natural products from renewable resources. Lignin can be obtained by different pulping processes, but only lignosulfonates are available in great quantities. The chemical structure of lignin is similar to that of phenol, making it an interesting alternative to replace phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin formulation (Forsset al.1979). However, it is estimated that there are only 0.3 reactive aromatic sites available for the formaldehyde condensation for every nine-carbon unit of kraft lignin, which is only one-tenth that of a phenol molecule (Pizziet al.1989; Martonet al.1996). In the early studies, lignin was directly incorporated into phenolic resins, where it served both as a filler and a phenol substitute. Because of its extremely low reactivity, direct use of lignin in preparing adhesives required long pressing times and high pressing temperatures. Therefore, unmodified lignin is usually not commercially attractive for such applications. To overcome this disadvantage, a current trend is to modify the chemical structure of lignin to increase its potential reactive sites toward formaldehyde. Our group (Huet al.2011) have reviewed methods of improving the reactivity of lignin toward formaldehyde, mainly including demethylation, phenolation, and methylolation. Many reports have been published on the preparation of lignin modified phenol formaldehyde adhesives (Alonsoet al. 2004; Malutanet al.2008; Linet al.2010; Vázquezet al.1997). To the best of our knowledge, little has been reported about lignin applications in phenolic foam.

In the present paper, phenolated lignosulfonate modified resol resin was prepared and characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was success-fully applied to prepare phenolic foam by combining proper curing agent, surfactant, and foaming agent. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and evaluation of compressive properties of the modified phenolic foam were carried out. Results were compared with conventional phenolic foam (not containing lignosulfonate) in the formulation, in order to assess its potential as a fire-resistent, non-toxic substitute in fire-critical structural applications.

EXPERIMENTAL

Materials

Lignosulfonate, kindly donated by Feihuang Chemical Company, was dried in an oven at 105°C for 24 h, and kept in a desiccator at room temperature until it was used. Technical grade phenol and 37% formaldehyde (HCHO) were purchased from Ling Fen Company and used as received.

Methods

Phenolation lignosulfonate preparation

A flask provided with a thermocouple, mechanical stirrer, and condenser was charged with 100 g of melted phenol. 20 g of lignosulfonate was added slowly, and the pH of the mixture was adjusted with the addition of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (30% w/w). The resulting mixture pH was in the range 9 to 10. The mixture was stirred and heated slowly to l00-120oC in an oil bath, then refluxed at temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by cooling to 70oC.

Resol synthesis

Formaldehyde (37% aqueous solution) was slowly dropped into the above phenolated lignosulfonate mixture; the mole ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was 1.7:1. The resinification between phenolated lignosulfonate, phenol, and formaldehyde was conducted with constant agitation at 80°C. When the degree of condensation was appropriate (samples fell into a beaker full of water of 25°C as a thread), the resulting mixture was neutralized to pH 6-7 by addition of sulfuric acid. Finally, volatile products were removed under vacuum until the desired solid content was obtained. Its viscosities were within 4500 to 6000 cP at 25oC, and the solid content was between 75 and 82%.

General procedure for foam preparation

Phenolated lignosulfonate modified resin was prepared as above, with the addition of N-pentane (acting as foaming agent) and Tween-80 (acting as surfactant), which were thoroughly mixed at room temperature using an overhead mechanical stirrer. Continuous stirring of the mixture was continued vigorously for several seconds after sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution w/w, acting as curing agent) was added until the mixture was homogeneous and became warm. Then the mixture was quickly poured into a square paper box (15×15×15cm) in a pre-heated oven at 70oC. Formation of foam required 10 min, and the complete cure was obtained after 30 min at the same temperature. After cooling down, the foam was removed from the mold to allow characterization. The process was as shown in the flow chart (Fig.1). Foam formulation is listed in Table 1. To allow comparison, conventional resol resin and its foam were prepared in the same way.

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (1)

Fig. 1.Sample preparation

Table 1.Combinations of Foaming Agents for Preparing Phenolic Foam

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (2)

Characterization

Infrared spectra

IR spectra of the resol resin (after freeze drying) were obtained using a Nicolet FT- IR 560 spectrometer (Nicolet Co., USA), equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector. Six-four co-addition scans were made in a frequency range of 4000 to 500 cm-1at a resolution of 4 cm-1at room temperature.

Viscosity

The viscosity was observed with a DV-II+PRO viscometer (Germany, Brookfield Co.) at 25oC and 60%RH.

Solid content

To detect the solid content of the resol resin, the sample was put in an oven at 105oC for 2 h, then taken out and put into a desiccator. The sample was weighed before and after drying. The solid content was calculated as follows:

solid content(g/g)=dried sample(g)/wet sample(g)×100(1)

Apparent density measurements

Apparent density [ρ=mass (m)/apparent volume (V), g cm–3] was measured on samples of 15 (length)×30(width)×10 (thickness) mm using a foam saw and an electric balance (Shimadzu balance EB-4300DVW). The average caliper values of each part of a sample were measured at three different spots and used to calculate the apparent volume (V). The mass (M) of each sample was weighed using the Shimadzu balance.

Thermogravimetric analysis

In order to determine the thermal insulation of the foam, TG was carried out using a thermogravimetric analyzer instrument STA409 (Germany, Netzsch Co.). The temperature range in the experiment was 30 to 800oC at a heating rate of 20oC/min using nitrogen at a flow rate of 20 mL/min.

Friability property measurements

Friability was measured in accordance with ASTM C421. Twelve foam cubes with 25.4 mm on each side were mixed with twenty-four oak cubes with 19.0 mm on each side. In a custom-made tumbling box, all cubes were tumbled for 10 min at 60 rpm, and each sample was weighed to an accuracy of 1 mg before and after tumbling.

Morphology

After gold sputtering on the foam samples, they were examined for morphological details with an SEM instrument 3400N (HITACHI Co., Japan) with an acceleration voltage of 15.0kV. The dried samples were examined for morphological details with an FEI quanta 200 SEM instrument with an acceleration voltage of 30 kV and magnification of 3000.

Mechanical property measurements

The sample size was 50 (length)×50 (width)×50 (thickness) mm. Compression strength was measured using an electronic universal testing machine CMT4304 (China, Xinsansi Co.) at 25°C, in the direction perpendicular to the foam rise at a constant crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. The compressive strength of the foams was determined when deformation reached 10% of its original value, according to Chinese National Standard (GB8813-88).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

FT-IR Analysis

FT-IR spectroscopy is a valuable tool to establish evidence of resinification, and it was also used to determine the functional groups of the resin. Figure 2 shows the FT-IR spectroscopy of the phenolated lignosulfonate modified resol resin. The stretching vibra-tion absorption band at 3348.2 cm-1, corresponding to hydroxyl groups, as well as the peaks at 1605 cm-1, 1514 cm-1,and 1426 cm-1were attributed to aromatic ring vibrations, bands at 1455 cm-1and 1372 cm-1were due to the bending vibrations of CH2, and the absorption band at 1030 cm-1was attributed to hydroxymethyl groups.

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (3)

Fig. 2. FT-IR spectra of modified PF resin (1 – phenolated lignosulfonate modified resol resin, 2 – lignosulfonate)

A clear peak at 1042 cm-1was the sulfonate group, as shown in curve 2 in Fig. 2; during the phenolation and resinification process, the peak completely disappeared, indi-cating that the sulfonate group was effectively cleaved. The band at 1233 cm-1was assigned to the phenlolic hydroxyl group. The peak at 1680 cm-1was due to >C=O stretching vibration in aldehyde, which overlapped the benzene ring skeleton stretching vibration. From the above FT-IR data it was observed that the phenolated lignosulfonate was incorporated into the resin. The absorption bands were assigned as suggested by other researchers (Zhaoet al.2001; Tanet al.2001).

Thermal Analysis

The thermal resistance properties of the phenolic foam derived from phenolated lignosulfonate modified resol resin were assessed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Figure 3 depicts the TGA results for foams including conventional and modified phenolic foam. From the weight loss curve, conventional and modified phenolic foam both thermally decomposed in three temperature regions: 100-200oC was the first thermal decomposition of the crosslinked foam, probably due to the removal of some low weight molecules, such as free phenol, formaldehyde, and water. What’s more, closed cell walls broke and gas was released from the void spaces during the heating process, and just a little lost weight could be observed, which indicates that the foam’s crosslinked network could not be destroyed in that range of heating. Mass loss in the range 200 to 500oC was attributed to the second thermal decomposition of the crosslinked foam, mainly from the releasing of HCHO and H2O, derived from the rupture of weak bonds (such as methylene bonds or ether bonds) and conversion of these into more stable structures (Sunet al.2007). The major structural disintegration for modified foam occurred at 443oC, while it took place at 267oC in the case of conventional foam. The 176oC increase in thermal stability could be due to the large amount of rigid structure, caused by the rich benzene ring in modified foam.

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (4)Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (5)

Fig. 3.TG and DTG thermogram of phenolic foam

Modified foam weight loss was about 15.0%, and for conventional foam it was about 23.6%, which means that a 9.6% decrease could be obtained. In the range 500 to 800oC, the third phase of thermal decomposition of the crosslinked foam, a sharp weight loss was due to the further degradation of foam to carbonaceous structures. As clearly shown from the TG profiles, with the introduction of lignosulfonate into the resol resin, the thermal resistance of foam increased, which was demonstrated by higher decomposition temperature and the carbon residue at a lower temperature. For instance, conventional phenolic foamTD(decomposition temperature in the three stage) was 483.77oC, versus modified phenolic foamTD(decomposition temperature in the three stage) was 556.83oC. Meanwhile, the carbon residue at 800oC was about 54.5% for the reference phenol 100% foam, compared with 61.2% for the foam containing 20% phenolated lignosulfonate.

Morphology

Friability is an important property of low-density foams. For phenolic foam with a density below 100 kg/m3, the friability is so high that severe problems arise in production and applications. For example, the friability of phenolic foam reportedly causes dust pollution in production areas and difficulties in bonding to other materials (Shenet al.2003).

The surface morphologies of conventional and modified phenolic foam, shown in Fig. 4, can reflect the friability property. As shown in these pictures, the conventional phenolic foam (a) surface was much more irregular and there were numerous fragments on it, which indicated its friability. Under the same magnification, the cell of foam (b) shows a uniform dispersion of spherical cells and amazingly smaller cell diameter. What’s more, it had nearly no fragments, which demonstrated that the introduction of phenolated lignosulfonate into phenolic resin can toughen the phenolic foam and make the cells more regular, which is in accordance with the friability test result. The mass loss dropped from 25% for conventional phenolic foam, to less than 19.5% for the modified foam with phenolated lignosulfonate. The improvement implies that the change in friability is associated with an increase in toughness for the modified foam. Dimples on the cell walls represent the areas of continuous, thin polymer films, which form the walls that enclose the cells (Auadet al.2007). Foam (c) showed that the cell walls were extremely thin and smooth, and the diameters were estimated to be less than 2 μm. The angle between three cell walls was almost 120°, which also evidenced the regularity of phenolic foam (b).

Mechanical Properties

The deformation behavior of cellular materials under compressive loading has been well described and analyzed (Tondiet al.2009; Celzardet al.2010; Gibsonet al.1997). Like most plastic foams when subjected to compressive loading, phenolic foam exhibits a multi-stage deformation response. As shown in Fig. 5, the initial part of the compressive stress-strain response is revealed, which is the portion of the deformation response that is most relevant for engineering applications, including the key parameters of compressive modulus and strength (Shenet al.2003). The data are summarized in Table 2.

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (6)

(a) conventional phenolic foam

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (7)

(b) modified phenolic foam

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (8)

(c) magnification of modified phenolic foam

Fig. 4.SEM micrograph of phenolic foams

Lignosulfonate introduction into phenolic foam resulted in a great enhancement in compression properties. Phenolated lignosulfonate (20%, based on phenol weight) caused striking increases in modulus and strength of phenolic foam. The modulus rose to almost nine times the value for conventional phenolic foam, and this was accompanied by a six-fold increase in strength, as shown in Fig. 5. The fact that the effectiveness of phenolated lignosulfonate in enhancing compressive properties exceeded that of conventional phenolic foam can be attributed partly due to the alkyl side chain in the lignosulfonate structure. The alkyl side chain haslinearstructure and contributes to toughness to a greater degree than a benzene ring by itself (having certain rigidity). Thus, foam derived from lignosulfonate enhanced compressive properties, gave rise to more regular cells, and there was less mass lost.

Data from Table 2 can be used to compare phenolic foam with other commercially available polymer foams. The modified phenolic foam could achieve a comparable level of strength of others, if they have the same density, which indicates that phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can be competitive with these structural foams in certain engineering applications, particularly those applications requiring fire resistant properties.

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (9)

Fig. 5.Compressive stress–strain relationships of phenolic foams. Loading direction is parallel to the foam rise direction

Table 2.Compressive Properties of Foams

Characterization and properties of a lignosulfonate-based phenolic foam :: BioResources (10)

CONCLUSIONS

The use of modified lignin is an interesting approach for increasing the usage of renewable resources. Lignin is thus very attractive to many industries, as it is a potential source of bio-phenol as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the manufacture of phenolic resins.

The utilization of lignosulfonate in the modified phenolic foam is approached in three steps. Initially, the lignosulfonate is modified by phenolation, and immediately formaldehyde is dropped in to formulate the modified resol resin. At last, surfactant, curing agent, and foaming agents are combined with the above resol resin to obtain the modified phenolic foams.

The resulting phenolic foams, when tested for compression, friability, thermal resistance, and morphology, are fully comparable with those of their phenolic counter-parts. The present work showed that modifying materials based on lignin can compete with synthetic modifiers for most of traditional applications.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful for the support of the Forestry Public Sector Research Fund of State Forestry Administration of China (Grant No. 201104004), and Chinese National Forestry Bureau Extention Project (Grant. No. [2010]05).

REFERENCES CITED

Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., Rodríguez, F., Astarloa, G., and Echeverría, J. M. (2004). “Use of a methylolated softwood ammonium lignosulfonate as partial substitute of phenol in resol resins manufacture,”Journal of Applied Polymer Science94, 643-650.

Auad, M. L., Zhao, L., Shen, H., Nutt, S. R., and Sorathia, U. (2007). “Flammability properties and mechanical performance of epoxy modified phenolic foams,”J. Appl. Polym. Sci.104, 1399-1407.

Celzard, A., Zhao, W., Pizzi, A., and Fierro, V. (2010). “Mechanical properties of tannin-based rigid foams undergoing compression,”Materials Science and Engineering A527, 4438-4446.

Foss, K. G., and Fuhrmann, A. (1979). “Finnish plywood, particleboard, and fireboard made with a lignin-base adhesive,”Forest Prod J. 29(7), 39-43.

Gibson, L. J., and Ashby, M. F. (1997).Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press1997.

Hu, L. H., Pan, H., Zhou, Y. H., and Zhang, M. (2011). “Methods to improve lignin’s reactivity as a phenol substitute and as replacement for other phenolic compounds: A brief review,”BioResources6(3), 3515-3525.

Li, W. L., Lin, Q., Yan, M. F., and Zou, Y. S. (2003). “Reducing the contents of free phenol and formaldehyde in phenolic foam,”Journal of Applied Polymer Science90, 2333-2336.

Lin, Z. X., Ouyang, X. P., Yang, D. J., Deng, Y. H., and Qiu, X. Q. (2010). “Effect of hydroxymethylation of lignin on the properties of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins,”World Sci-Tech R&D32(3), 348-351.

Marton, J., Marton, T., Falkchag, S. I., and Adler, E. (1996). “Alkali-catalyzed reactions of formaldehyde with lignins,” In:Lignin Structure and Reactions, Marton, J. (ed.), Advances in Chemistry Series 59, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 125-144.

Malutan, T., Nicu, R., and Popa, V. I. (2008). “Contribution to the study of hydroxymethylation reaction of alkali lignin,”BioResources3(1), 13-20.

Pizzi, A., Cameron, F. A., and Klashorst, G. H. (1989). “Soda bagasse lignin adhesive for particleboard,” In:Adhesives from Renewable Resources, ACS Symposium Series 385, Washington, D.C., 82.

Shen, H. B., and Nutt, S. (2003). “Mechanical characterization of short fiber reinforced phenolic foam,”Composites: Part A34, 899-906.

Sun, Z. X., Wang, L., and Li, D. F. (2007). “Study of preparation and property of phenolic foam,”China Plastics Industry35(8), 46-49.

Tan, X. M., Huang, N.Y., Shang, Y. H., Li Y., and Xue, H. Q. (2001). “Synthesis and characterization of boron-modified phenolic resin containing large hydromethyl groups,”China Plastics Industry29(4), 6-8.

Tondi, G., Zhao, W., Pizzi, A., Du, G., Fierro, V., and Celzard, A. (2009). “Tannin-based rigid foams: A survey of chemical and physical properties,”Bioresource Technology100, 5162-5169.

Vázquez, G., González, J., and Antorrena, F. G. (1997). “Effect of chemical modification of lignin on the gluebond performance of lignin-phenolic resins,”Bioresource Technology60, 191-198.

Wang, M. C., Leitch, M., and Xu, C. B. (2009). “Synthesis of phenol–formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins,”European Polymer Journal45, 3380-3388.

Zhao, B. Y., Hu, K. A., and Wu, R. J. (2001). “Primary study on the phenolic modification of sodium lignosulphoate,”Polymer Materials Science & Engineering16(1), 158-161.

Article submitted: August 26, 2011; Peer review completed: October 23, 2011; Revised version received and accepted: November 29, 2011; Published: December 1, 2011.

FAQs

What is the composition of sodium Lignosulfonate? ›

Sodium Lignosulfonate(Sodium Lignosulphonate)is lignosulphonic acid sodium salt,With Molecular formula C20H24Na2O10S2,Molecular Weight 534.502 g/mol.In yellow brown powder,soluble in water.

What is lignosulfonate used for? ›

They are used to stably disperse pesticides, dyes, carbon black, and other insoluble solids and liquids into water. As a binder it suppresses dust on unpaved roads. It is also a humectant and a in water treatment. Chemically, it may be used as a tannin for tanning leather and as a feedstock for a variety of products.

How is sodium Lignosulfonate made? ›

Lignosulfonates are obtained from sulfite pulping processes wherein cellulose is extracted from wood in the pulp industry. The so-called sulfite pulping process involves mixing sulfur dioxide (SO2) with an aqueous solution of base to generate the raw liquor for cooking the wood.

Is lignosulfonate soluble in water? ›

In contrast to other technical lignin, lignosulfonate possesses good water solubility due to an abundance of sulfonate groups. Solutions of 53 wt. % in water have been reported, which would entail that the water‑solubility of lignosulfonate is virtually unlimited.

What is the effect of sodium Lignosulfonate? ›

It works as a superplasticizer or retarder in construction. LS is used in a smaller proportion, and it assumes 0.5-2% of the total mixture. However, it increases the strength of concrete by approx—20 to 26%. Lignosulfonate is a sustainable bio-admixture which originates from softwood and hardwood.

What is the difference between lignin sulfonate and lignosulfonate? ›

The biggest differences between lignin and lignosulfonate is the lignin insoluble in water, while the lignosulfonate soluble in water easily. Lignosulfonate absorb the moisture easier in the air.

What are the properties of Lignosulphonates? ›

Lignosulfonates are described as randomly branched polyaromatic polyelectrolytes [2,21], which exhibit water-solubility and surfactant-like behavior [4,5,43]. Hydrophilicity is imparted by the presence of anionic sulfonate groups, but also by anionic carboxylate groups and (at high pH) phenolic hydroxyl groups [17].

What are the different types of lignosulfonates? ›

At Lignostar we focus mainly on four different lignosulfonates, sodium lignosulfonates, magnesium lignosulfonates, calcium lignosulfonates, and ammonium lignosulfonates. The LignoStar range of lignosulfonates includes two types, StarLig, for chemical applications, and StarBond, for zootechnical applications.

What is sodium Lignosulfonate in water? ›

Sodium lignosulfonate (wood pulp) is the extract of bamboo pulping process, which is made by concentrating, modifying, spraying and drying. Sodium lignosulfonate (CAS 8061-51-6) is light yellow (brown) free flowing powder, and easy to dissolve in water.

Is lignosulfonate a surfactant? ›

Sodium lignosulfonate is an anionic surfactant that has good potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

What is the difference between Kraft lignin and lignosulfonate? ›

Kraft lignin induces a reinforcement, increases glass transition and water stability. Lignosulfonates have a plasticizing effect on mechanical properties. Both lignin appear of great interest to tailor wheat gluten material properties.

What is the raw material of sodium Lignosulfonate? ›

Lignosulfonate is a type of anionic surfactant which is made with lignin as raw material.

Is lignosulfonate a chelating agent? ›

Usage of lignosulfonates as chelating agents

Lignosulfonates and sugar derivatives contain sulfonyl groups, carboxyl groups, phenolic hydroxyl groups, and alcoholic hydroxy groups, and display a chelating property that captures polyvalent metal ions and forms hydrophilic or hydrophobic complex compounds.

What is the pH of lignosulfonate? ›

Main Specification
NameSodium Lignosulphonate Grade OneSodium lignosulfonate Grade Three
pH7.0-9.54-7
Dry maters95%min95%min
Water-insoluble1.5%max2%max
Water Reducing Capacity8%min8%min
7 more rows

Is lignosulfonate a stabilizing agent? ›

The lignosulfonate mainly comprises of positive ions and these reacts with the negative ions present in clay minerals to form stable aggregates by reducing the double layer thickness of clay particles. Lignosulfonate has shown a promising prospect as a stabilizing agent especially for soft soils.

What are the disadvantages of lignosulfonate? ›

38 However, a major disadvantage of the use of lignosulfonates in this area is their water solubility. In this case, lignosulfonates may leach from the surface of the road during heavy rainfall.

Is lignosulfonate safe? ›

Lignosulphonate is not an irritant to the skin and eyes and is not a skin sensitiser. Exposure to dust by inhalation is considered a hazard.

Is lignosulfonate toxic? ›

Corrosion and toxicity towards plants can be readily minimised by pH control and lignosulfonates are non-toxic to animals. When spread on land, there is no risk of contaminating ground water. Published data indicate that at less than 10 kgs per square meter, no problems arise.

What is the best solvent for lignin? ›

Pyridine is also a good lignin solvent, having an even smaller solubility parameter than lignin. This behavior can be explained by an acid-base interaction between pyridine and the phenolic groups in lignin, which results in the high solubility of lignin in pyridine (Shukry et al. 2008).

What is the difference between lignin and lignin sulfonate? ›

Lignosulfonates have generally more sulfur groups, and thus, a higher degree of sulfonation than that of kraft lignin. Due to the presence of the sulfonated group, lignosulfonates are anionically charged and water soluble.

What chemicals are used to remove lignin? ›

He discovered that combining water, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate creates a remarkable solvent for dissolving lignin--the glue that holds wood fibers together.

What is calcium Lignosulfonate used for in concrete? ›

1. Calcium lignosulfonate used as water reduction in concrete. Calcium lignosulofnate superplasticizer is a surface-active agent, added to the concrete, due to the orientation of hydrophobic groups adsorbed on cement particle surface, so that a negative charge of cement.

What is the chemical formula for lignosulfonate? ›

Sodium lignosulfonate | C20H24Na2O10S2 | CID 44135711 - PubChem.

What is lignosulfonate in drilling mud? ›

Lignosulfonates are water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers. In the oil industry, lignosulfonates are used as a reagent to control the basic parameters of drilling fluids and as deflocculants to prevent the coagulation of solids.

How much does lignin sulfonate cost? ›

As per the ChemAnalyst data, the Sodium Lignosulphonate price hovered around USD 846/MT during May 2022.

What is the molecular weight of lignosulfonate? ›

Starting from LSs with an average molecular weight of 90,000 Da, and using such a treatment, one can prepare controlled molecular weight LSs in the range of 30,000 to 3500 Da based on the average mass molecular weight.

What is Kraft lignin? ›

Kraft lignin is a kind of industrial lignin obtained from Kraft pulp, which accounts for about 85% of the total lignin production in the world. The Kraft pulp method is the main method for converting coniferous wood to pulp; the pulping yield is higher than other alkaline pulping methods.

What is Lignosol? ›

Description. Pelhesion, formerly Lignosol AR™, is a pelleting aid formulated with calcium lignosulfonate and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer. It is intended to enhance pellet quality at minimum inclusion rate levels, typically 0.2 to 0.5%. Pelhesion may be used in pellets for all non-aquatic animal species.

How do you make calcium lignosulfonate? ›

Calcium lignosulfonate is obtained from soft wood processed in sulfite pulping method for producing paper. They small pieces of softwood is put into reaction tank to react with acidic calcium bisulfite solution for 5-6 hours under the temperature of 130 degree Centigrade.

What are lignosulfonate derivatives? ›

Lignosulfonates are derivative composites of lignin, they exhibit functional groups with a hydrophilic character such as methoxyl groups such as aldehydes, ketones, sulfonates, and carboxylic acids, on a hydrophobic backbone, mostly aromatic groups.

What is the main ingredient of surfactant? ›

Carboxylates are the most common surfactants and comprise the carboxylate salts (soaps), such as sodium stearate. More specialized species include sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and carboxylate-based fluorosurfactants such as perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA or PFO).

Is lignosulfonate a biopolymer? ›

Lignosulfonates are biopolymers; they are salts of lignosulfonic acid that has been formed when pulp is manufactured by the sulphite method.

What is the advantage of lignin? ›

The main advantage of lignin is that it reduces the carbon footprint of a manufactured product. In some applications, lignin can even make the product better.

Why is lignin stronger than cellulose? ›

Lignin fills the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin composition, and increases the mechanical strength of the cell wall (Janssen, 2000).

What are the benefits of lignin? ›

The lignin adds compressive strength and stiffness to the plant cell wall and is believed to have played a role in the evolution of terrestrial plants by helping them withstand the compressive forces of gravity. Lignin also waterproofs the cell wall, facilitating the upward transport of water in xylem tissues.

Is calcium lignosulfonate retarder? ›

Lignosulfonate has a function as a retarder which is able to extend the compressive strength of the cement concrete. Laboratory experiments were carried out at several temperature conditions. The temperature is varied from 28oC to 80oC.

What type of retarder is calcium lignosulfonate? ›

Calcium / Sodium lignosulfonate is a special formulated water reducer admixture based on selected lignosulfonates, which provides a cost effective solution in enhancing the water reduction. Made of pure wood pulp, it works the best as retarding agent for construction materials.

Is calcium lignosulfonate organic? ›

Calcium lignosulfonate (CaLS), a cheap and ecofriendly compound, is used for the first time to amend acid soil by utilizing its unique organic and inorganic functional moieties simultaneously.

Is lignosulfonate solubility? ›

Calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is an amorphous material derived from lignin. It is a light-yellow-brown powder that is soluble in water, but practically insoluble in organic solvents.

Which is the strongest chelating agent? ›

Enterobactin, produced by E. coli, is the strongest chelating agent known.

What is the best chelating agent? ›

Fulvic acid: is the most powerful natural chelating agent. Fulvic acids have a molecular size ranging from 1000 to 10,000, they are more chemically reactive. There small size means that they can rapidly enter the plant.

Is calcium lignosulfonate a Superplasticizer? ›

Lignosulfonate is working as retarding and super plasticizer in construction,which is anionic surface active substances, on the adsorption and dispersion of cement, concrete can improve various physical performance.

What is dispersing agent Sodium Lignosulfonate? ›

Sodium lignosulfonate used as dispersant,Sodium Lignosulfonate or sulfonated lignin is a water-soluble lignin extracted from the sulfite pulping process. Lignosulfonate is lypohydrophilic molecule due to the hydrophobic aromatic structure and the presence of the hydrophilic sulfonate groups on its structure.

Is sodium Lignosulfonate toxic? ›

CHRONIC TOXICITY:

For effects of long-term exposure there are the good health records for those who have worked with reacting and spray drying this material. Over a period of 40 years to date, no human health problem has been attributed to exposure to lignosulfonate.

What are the disadvantages of lignosulfonates? ›

38 However, a major disadvantage of the use of lignosulfonates in this area is their water solubility. In this case, lignosulfonates may leach from the surface of the road during heavy rainfall.

What is the formula for Lignosulfonic acid? ›

Lignosulfonic acid | C20H26O10S2 - PubChem.

Is lignosulfonate flammable? ›

Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Sodium Lignosulfonate: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 6030 mg/kg [Mouse]. Flammability of the Product: May be combustible at high temperature.

What is calcium lignosulfonate used for in concrete? ›

1. Calcium lignosulfonate used as water reduction in concrete. Calcium lignosulofnate superplasticizer is a surface-active agent, added to the concrete, due to the orientation of hydrophobic groups adsorbed on cement particle surface, so that a negative charge of cement.

What is lignosulfonate in drilling? ›

Lignosulfonates are water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers. In the oil industry, lignosulfonates are used as a reagent to control the basic parameters of drilling fluids and as deflocculants to prevent the coagulation of solids.

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Msgr. Refugio Daniel

Last Updated: 25/04/2023

Views: 5886

Rating: 4.3 / 5 (54 voted)

Reviews: 93% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Msgr. Refugio Daniel

Birthday: 1999-09-15

Address: 8416 Beatty Center, Derekfort, VA 72092-0500

Phone: +6838967160603

Job: Mining Executive

Hobby: Woodworking, Knitting, Fishing, Coffee roasting, Kayaking, Horseback riding, Kite flying

Introduction: My name is Msgr. Refugio Daniel, I am a fine, precious, encouraging, calm, glamorous, vivacious, friendly person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.