Biofuels and Bioenergy (2022)

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

List of Abbreviations xix

1 Biofuels: The Back Story 1
John A. Bryant and John Love

Summary 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Some history 1

1.2.1 Wood and charcoal 1

1.2.2 Dung as fuel 2

1.2.3 Oils and fats 2

1.2.4 Peat 3

1.3 Fossil fuels 4

1.3.1 Coal 4

1.3.2 Petroleum Oil 5

1.3.3 Natural gas 6

1.4 Fossil fuels and Carbon Dioxide 6

1.4.1 The Club of Rome 6

1.4.2 Climate change 7

1.5 Alternative Energy Sources 9

1.5.1 Introduction 9

1.5.2 Environmental Energy Sources 9

1.5.3 Nuclear power 15

1.5.4 Hydrogen 17

1.6 Biofuels 18

Selected references and suggestions for further reading 19

2 Biofuels in Operation 21
Lionel Clarke

Summary 21

2.1 Fuels for Transport 21

2.2 Future Trends in Fuels Requirements and Technology 24

2.3 Engines and Fuels – Progress vs Inertia 26

2.4 Engine Constraints, Fuel Specifications and Enhanced Performance 28

2.5 Biofuels – Implications and Opportunities 32

2.5.1 Introduction 32

2.5.2 Ethanol 32

2.5.3 Biodiesel 33

2.6 Advanced Biofuels as Alternatives to Ethanol and FAME 37

2.7 Biofuels for Aviation; ‘Biojet’ 40

2.8 Impact of Future Trends in Engine Design on Retail Biofuels 42

2.9 Conclusion 43

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 43

3 Anaerobic Digestion 45
John Bombardiere and David A. Stafford

Summary 45

3.1 History and Development of Anaerobic Digestion 45

3.1.1 Introduction 45

3.1.2 Mixtures of Micro‐Organisms 46

3.2 Anaerobic Digestion: The Process 47

3.2.1 General Biochemistry 47

3.2.2 Design Types 47

3.2.3 Complete Mix Design 47

3.2.4 Plug Flow Digesters 48

3.2.5 High Dry Solids AD Systems 49

3.2.6 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 50

3.2.7 Anaerobic Filters 50

(Video) What are Biofuels and Where are They Going?

3.3 Commercial applications and benefits 51

3.3.1 In the United Kingdom 51

3.3.2 In the USA 51

3.3.3 In Germany 52

3.3.4 Overall Benefits 52

3.4 Ethanol Production Linked with Anaerobic Digestion 53

3.5 Financial and Economic Aspects 54

3.6 UK and US Government Policies and Anaerobic Digestion – an overview 55

3.7 Concluding Comments 56

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 57

4 Plant Cell Wall Polymers 59
Stephen C. Fry

Summary 59

4.1 Nature and Biological Roles of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 59

4.2 Polysaccharide Composition of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 60

4.2.1 Typical dicots 60

4.2.2 Differences in Certain Dicots 67

4.2.3 Differences in Monocots 67

4.2.4 Differences in Gymnosperms 68

4.2.5 Differences in Non‐seed Land‐plants 68

4.2.6 Differences in Charophytes 68

4.3 Post‐synthetic Modification of Cell‐wall Polysaccharides 70

4.3.1 C ross‐linking of cell‐wall polysaccharides 70

4.3.2 Hydrolysis of Cell‐wall Polysaccharides 72

4.3.3 ‘Cutting and Pasting’ (Transglycosylation) of Cell‐wall Polysaccharide Chains 75

4.4 Polysaccharide Biosynthesis 77

4.4.1 General Features 77

4.4.2 At the Plasma Membrane 77

4.4.3 In the Golgi System 78

4.4.4 Delivering the Precursors – sugar Nucleotides 79

4.5 Non‐polysaccharide Components of the Plant Cell Wall 80

4.5.1 Extensins and Other (Glyco)Proteins 80

4.5.2 Polyesters 83

4.5.3 Lignin 84

4.5.4 Silica 84

4.6 Conclusions 85

Acknowledgements 85

Appendix 85

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 85

5 Ethanol Production from Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass 89
Leah M. Brown, Gary M. Hawkins and Joy Doran-Peterson

Summary 89

5.1 Brief History of Fuel‐Ethanol Production 89

5.2 Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane and Corn 92

5.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass as Feedstocks for Ethanol Production 93

5.3.1 The Organisms 93

5.3.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass 96

5.3.3 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass 99

5.3.4 Effect of Inhibitory Compounds on Fermenting Microorganisms 100

5.4 Summary 102

5.5 Examples of Commercial Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Plants 103

5.5.1 Beta Renewables/Biochemtex Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plants in Italy, Brazil, USA and Slovak Republic 103

5.5.2 Poet‐DSM ‘Project Liberty’ – First Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the USA 103

5.5.3 Abengoa Hugoton, Kansas commercial plant and MSW to ethanol Demonstration Plant, Salamanca 103

Selected References, Suggestions for Further Reading and Useful Websites 104

(Video) Biofuel instead of coal and oil - How promising are these renewable resources? | DW Documentary

6 Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols and Biodiesel 105
John A. Bryant

Summary 105

6.1 Introduction 105

6.2 Synthesis of Triacylglycerol 107

6.2.1 The Metabolic Pathway 107

6.2.2 Potential for Manipulation 110

6.3 Productivity 111

6.4 Sustainability 114

6.5 More Recently Exploited and Novel Sources of Lipids for Biofuels 114

6.5.1 Higher Plants 114

6.5.2 Algae 115

6.5.3 Prokaryotic Organisms 116

6.6 Concluding Remarks 117

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 117

7 Development of Miscanthus as a Bioenergy Crop 119
John CliftonBrown, Jon McCalmont and Astley Hastings

Summary 119

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 Developing Commercial Interest 122

7.3 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential 127

7.4 Perspectives for ‘now’ and for the Future 128

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 129

8 Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans: ‘3in1’ Tree for Integrated Food/Fuel and EcoServices 133
C.B. Jamieson, R.D. Lasco and E.T. Rasco

Summary 133

8.1 Introduction: the ‘Food vs Fuel’ and ‘ILUC’ Debates 133

8.2 Integrated Food‐Energy Systems (IFES): a Potential Solution 134

8.2.1 Main Features of IFES 134

8.2.2 Baseline Productivity 136

8.3 Land use: the Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services 137

8.4 Sugar Palms: Highly Productive Multi‐Purpose Trees 138

8.5 Nipa (Nipa fruticans): a Mangrove Sugar Palm with Great Promise 140

8.6 Conclusion 141

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 141

9 The Use of Cyanobacteria for Biofuel Production 143
David J. LeaSmith and Christopher J. Howe

Summary 143

9.1 Essential Aspects of Cyanobacterial Biology 143

9.1.1 General Features 143

9.1.2 Photosynthesis and Carbon Dioxide Fixation 144

9.1.3 Nitrogen Fixation 146

9.2 Commercial Products Currently Derived from Cyanobacteria 146

9.3 Cyanobacteria Culture 147

9.4 Cyanobacterial Genomes and Genetic Modification for Biofuel Production 148

9.5 Industrial Production of Biofuels from Cyanobacteria 152

9.6 Conclusion 154

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 154

10 ThirdGeneration Biofuels from the Microalga, Botryococcus braunii 157
Charlotte Cook, Chappandra Dayananda, Richard K. Tennant and John Love

Summary 157

10.1 Botryococcus braunii 157

10.2 Microbial Interactions 160

10.3 Botryococcus braunii as a Production Platform for Biofuels or

Chemicals 161

10.3.1 Hydrocarbons, Lipids and Sugars 161

10.3.2 Controlling and Enhancing Productivity 163

10.3.3 Alternative Culture Systems 165

(Video) Energy 101 | Biofuels

10.3.4 Harvesting Botryococcus Biomass and Hydrocarbons 166

10.3.5 Processing Botryococcus into an Alternative Fuel 166

10.4 Improving Botryococcus 167

10.5 Future Prospects and Conclusion 169

Selected References and Suggestions of Further Reading 170

11 Strain Selection Strategies for Improvement of Algal Biofuel Feedstocks 173
Leyla T. Hathwaik and John C. Cushman

Summary 173

11.1 Introduction 173

11.2 Lipids in Microalgae 174

11.3 Starch in Microalgae 175

11.4 Metabolic Interconnection Between Lipid and Starch Biosynthesis 176

11.5 Strategies for the Selection of Microalgae Strains with Enhanced Biofuel Feedstock Traits 177

11.5.1 Manipulation of Growth Conditions 177

11.5.2 Genetic Mutagenesis 177

11.5.3 F low Cytometry 178

11.5.4 Fluorescence‐Activated Cell Sorting 181

11.5.5 Buoyant Density Centrifugation 183

11.6 Conclusions 185

Acknowledgements 185

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 185

12 Algal Cultivation Technologies 191
Alessandro Marco Lizzul and Michael J. Allen

Summary 191

12.1 Introduction 191

12.2 Lighting 192

12.3 Mixing 194

12.4 Control Systems and Construction Materials 196

12.5 Algal Production Systems at Laboratory Scale 197

12.6 Algal Production in Open Systems 198

12.6.1 Pond‐Based Systems 198

12.6.2 Membrane Reactors 200

12.7 Algal production in Closed Systems 201

12.7.1 Introduction 201

12.7.2 Plate or Panel Based Systems 201

12.7.3 Horizontal Tubular Systems 203

12.7.4 Bubble Columns 205

12.7.5 Airlift Reactors 207

12.8 Concluding Comments 209

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 209

13 Biofuels from Macroalgal Biomass 213
Jessica Adams

Summary 213

13.1 Macroalgal resources in the UK 213

13.2 Suitability of macroalgae for biofuel production 214

13.3 Biofuels from Macroalgae 217

13.3.1 Introduction 217

13.3.2 Ethanol from laminarin, mannitol and alginate 217

13.3.3 Ethanol from cellulose 219

13.3.4 Butanol 220

13.3.5 Anaerobic digestion 221

13.3.6 Thermochemical conversions 223

13.4 Future prospects 223

13.5 Conclusion 224

Acknowledgements 224

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 224

(Video) Biofuels 101

14 Lipidbased Biofuels from Oleaginous Microbes 227
Lisa A. Sargeant, Rhodri W. Jenkins and Christopher J. Chuck

Summary 227

14.1 Introduction 227

14.2 Microalgae 229

14.3 Oleaginous Yeasts 231

14.4 Feedstocks for Heterotrophic Microbial Cultivation 231

14.5 The Biochemical Process of Lipid Accumulation in Oleaginous Yeast 232

14.6 Lipid Profile of Oleaginous Microbes 236

14.7 Lipid Extraction and Processing 237

14.8 Concluding Comments 237

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 239

15 Engineering Microbial Metabolism for Biofuel Production 241
Thomas P. Howard

Summary 241

15.1 Introduction 241

15.2 Designer Biofuels 242

15.2.1 Introduction 242

15.2.2 Isoprenoid‐Derived Biofuels 243

15.2.3 Higher Alcohols 245

15.2.4 Fatty Acid‐Derived Biofuels 247

15.2.5 Petroleum Replica Hydrocarbons 249

15.3 Towards Industrialisation 251

15.3.1 Introduction 251

15.3.2 Bioconsolidation 251

15.3.3 Molecular and Cellular Redesign 255

15.3.4 Biofuel Pumps 256

15.3.5 Synthetic Biology and Systems Engineering 257

15.4 Conclusion 258

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 259

16 The Sustainability of Biofuels 261
J.M. Lynch

Summary 261

16.1 Introduction 261

16.2 Bioenergy policies 262

16.3 Economics of bioenergy markets 263

16.4 Environmental issues 264

16.5 Life Cycle Assessment 266

16.5.1 General features 266

16.5.2 OECD Copenhagen workshop, 2008 267

16.6 Conclusions 270

Selected references and suggestions for further reading 271

17 Biofuels and Bioenergy – Ethical Aspects 273
John A. Bryant and Steve Hughes

Summary 273

17.1 Introduction to ethics 273

17.1.1 How do we Make Ethical or Moral Decisions? 273

17.1.2 Environmental ethics 275

17.2 Biofuels and Bioenergy – Ethical Background 276

17.3 The Key Ethical Issues 276

17.3.1 Biofuel production and the growth of Food Crops 276

17.3.2 Is growth of Biofuel Crops Sustainable? 278

17.3.3 Biofuel Production, Land Allocation and Human Rights 279

17.4 Concluding comment 283

Selected references and suggestions for further reading 283

18 Postscript 285
John Love and John A. Bryant

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 287

(Video) What Is Biofuel? | Biomass and biofuels for kids

Index 289

FAQs

What is the difference between bioenergy and biofuels? ›

What Is Bioenergy? Bioenergy (a word often used interchangeably with biofuel) is energy derived from biomass, which are plant- and animal-based materials taken from renewable sources. For example, dung, grasses, and wood products were early biofuels that people used to produce energy.

Is biofuel a bioenergy? ›

The term biofuels is sometimes used interchangeably with bioenergy, though more commonly it's used specifically to describe liquid bioenergy fuels such as biodiesel (a diesel substitute) and bioethanol (which can be used in petrol engines).

What are bioenergy fuels? ›

It is a form of renewable energy that is derived from recently living organic materials known as biomass, which can be used to produce transportation fuels, heat, electricity, and products.

What is biofuels or biomass? ›

biofuel, any fuel that is derived from biomass—that is, plant or algae material or animal waste. Since such feedstock material can be replenished readily, biofuel is considered to be a source of renewable energy, unlike fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

What is an example of bioenergy? ›

Examples include burning wood to create heat, using biodiesel and ethanol to fuel vehicles, and using methane gas and wood to generate electricity. More recently, developed forms of bioenergy use materials called “biomass,” such as sugar cane, grasses, straw, soybeans, and corn.

What are the 5 types of biofuel? ›

Various Types of Biofuel
  • Wood. This is the most basic form of fuel that is derived from organic matter. ...
  • Biogas. This is the gaseous form of biofuels. ...
  • Biodiesel. This biofuel is liquid in nature. ...
  • Ethanol. ...
  • Methanol. ...
  • Butanol.

What is considered bioenergy? ›

Bioenergy is renewable energy created from naturally occurring biological sources, such as grasses and trees. Types of bioenergy include biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel which may be sourced from plants (corn, sugarcane), wood, agricultural wastes, and bagasse.

What are biofuels examples? ›

Examples of biofuels include ethanol (often made from corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil), biodiesel (sourced from vegetable oils and liquid animal fats), green diesel (derived from algae and other plant sources), and biogas (methane derived from animal manure and other digested organic material).

Is biofuel a clean energy? ›

Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable and is produced by combining alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease.

What is bioenergy and types? ›

Bioenergy is a form of renewable energy generated when we burn biomass fuel. Biomass fuels come from organic material such as harvest residues, purpose-grown crops and organic waste from our homes, businesses and farms.

How bioenergy is produced? ›

Bioenergy is energy produced from renewable, biological sources such as biomass. Biomass is plant material that can be turned into fuel (also known as biofuel when it is made from biological material) to supply heat and electricity. Bioenergy can be obtained from many forms of biofuels.

What are the benefits of bioenergy? ›

Bioenergy qualities
  • Better air quality. ...
  • Biofuels are biodegradable. ...
  • Regional and rural economic development and employment opportunities. ...
  • Supporting agricultural and food- processing industries. ...
  • Cost savings. ...
  • Less landfill. ...
  • Energy reliability and security. ...
  • A growing range of technologies and applications.

What is the purpose of biofuels? ›

Most biofuels are used as transportation fuels, but they may also be used for heating and electricity generation. Gaseous fuels produced from biomass that are used directly as a gas or converted to liquid fuels may qualify for use in government programs that promote or require use of biofuels.

What are examples of biomass? ›

Some examples of biomass fuels are wood, crops, manure, and some garbage. When burned, the chemical energy in biomass is released as heat.

What is biofuel made from? ›

Biofuels are usually produced from plant materials that cannot be eaten by humans, such as corn stalks, grasses, and wood chips. Biomass is another name for the plant materials that are used to make biofuels.

Is bioenergy good for the environment? ›

The use of bioenergy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emis- sions. Bioenergy generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but every time a new plant grows, carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere.

How does bioenergy affect the environment? ›

Bioenergy is a unique type of renewable electricity: unlike solar, wind, and hydropower, generating power from biomass emits greenhouse gases and pollutants into the air. However, because of the renewable nature of biomass, many consider it to be a carbon-neutral source of electricity.

Where is bioenergy made? ›

Sources of biomass include agricultural crops, animal and plant wastes, algae, wood and organic residential/ industrial waste. The type of biomass will determine the type and amount of bioenergy that can be produced and the technology that can be used to produce it.

What is the most common biofuel? ›

Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide, particularly in Brazil. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic beverages such as whiskey, can be made (such as potato and fruit waste, etc.).

What are the advantages of biofuels? ›

Biofuel is made from renewable resources and relatively less-flammable compared to fossil diesel. It has significantly better lubricating properties. It causes less harmful carbon emission compared to standard diesel. Biofuels can be manufactured from a wide range of materials.

What are the characteristics of bioenergy? ›

Several characteristics affect the performance of biomass fuel, including the heat value, moisture level, chemical composition, and size and density of the fuel. These characteristics can vary noticeably from fuel to fuel. In addition, natural variations of a given fuel type can be significant.

What is modern bioenergy? ›

Modern bioenergy technologies include liquid biofuels produced from bagasse and other plants; bio-refineries; biogas produced through anaerobic digestion of residues; wood pellet heating systems; and other technologies.

Where is bioenergy used in the world? ›

Most of the biomass is used as the primary energy source by people for heating and cooking, ranging from 65% in Haiti, 72% in Kenya, 78% in Democratic Republic of Congo, 81.5% in Nigeria, 85% in Tanzania, to 89% in Kenya and Niger.

What are the 4 types of biofuels? ›

Biofuel is generally available in all regions of the world, which mainly include fuels like: Biodiesel. Bioethanol. Bio methanol.

Are biofuels sustainable? ›

Biofuels have the considerable potential to reduce the ecological footprint by factors between 8 and 16 compared to fossil fuels. Therefore, from an ecological footprint perspective they are more sustainable than the existing energy supplies.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels? ›

Advantages and disadvantages of biofuel
AdvantagesDisadvantages
Less carbon emissions. When burned, they release as much carbon as they absorbed during growth, although some carbon dioxide will be released during production, eg by the tractor.Needs a lot of labour.
2 more rows

Why biofuels are not renewable? ›

Indirectly, the production of biofuels actually increases CO2 levels because it reduces the number of trees transforming the toxic gas into oxygen. This is the first point which reveals biofuels to be a non-renewable source of energy.

Why are biofuels not very popular? ›

"The feedstock inputs you need for biodiesel are more expensive than petroleum is," Jones Prather said. "On top of that, the processes for producing the fuel aren't yet efficient enough so that you can produce it very cheaply."

Can biofuel replace fossil fuel? ›

Nearly all biofuel systems produce less greenhouse gas emissions where they replace fossil-based energy. Additional greenhouse gases can be prevented from entering the atmosphere–biosphere by: reducing the use of fossil fuels by introducing biofuels.

What are the disadvantages of bioenergy? ›

Biomass energy is not as efficient as fossil fuels

Some biofuels, like Ethanol, is relatively inefficient as compared to gasoline. In fact, it has to be fortified with fossil fuels to increase its efficiency.

What is a bioenergy plant? ›

Bioenergy refers to electricity and gas that is generated from organic matter, known as biomass. This can be anything from plants and timber to agricultural and food waste – and even sewage. The term bioenergy also covers transport fuels produced from organic matter.

Is bioenergy needed today? ›

Bioenergy is a significant part of the energy economy, accounting for 9.5% of total primary energy supply and some 70% of renewable energy in use today (International Energy Agency, 2017b, 2019).

What are the impacts of biofuel? ›

Regarding non-GHG environmental impacts, research suggests that production of biofuel feedstocks, particularly food crops like corn and soy, could increase water pollution from nutrients, pesticides, and sediment (NRC 2011). Increases in irrigation and ethanol refining could deplete aquifers (NRC 2011).

When was bioenergy first used? ›

There is a lot of evidence out there that suggests humans used bioenergy between 230,000 and 1.5 million years ago. From the moment humans discovered fire, we began using biofuel in the form of wood. Humans have a long history of burning bio-matter to create energy used for cooking and heating.

Why is biomass energy important? ›

Biomass provides a clean, renewable energy source that could dramatically improve our environment, economy and energy security. Biomass energy generates far less air emissions than fossil fuels, reduces the amount of waste sent to landfills and decreases our reliance on foreign oil.

Why do we need biomass energy? ›

Biomass continues to be an important fuel in many countries, especially for cooking and heating in developing countries. The use of biomass fuels for transportation and for electricity generation is increasing in many developed countries as a means of avoiding carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use.

How efficient is biomass energy? ›

Due to feedstock availability issues, dedicated biomass plants for combined heat & power (CHP), are typically of smaller size and lower electrical efficiency compared to coal plants (30%-34% using dry biomass, and around 22% for municipal solid waste). In cogeneration mode the total efficiency may reach 85%-90%.

What is the difference between biomass and bioenergy? ›

Bioenergy is energy produced from renewable, biological sources such as biomass. Biomass is plant material that can be turned into fuel (also known as biofuel when it is made from biological material) to supply heat and electricity. Bioenergy can be obtained from many forms of biofuels.

What are biofuels examples? ›

Examples of biofuels include ethanol (often made from corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil), biodiesel (sourced from vegetable oils and liquid animal fats), green diesel (derived from algae and other plant sources), and biogas (methane derived from animal manure and other digested organic material).

What are the different forms of biomass available as biofuels? ›

We can always grow trees and crops, and waste will always exist. We use four types of biomass today—wood and agricultural products,solid waste, landfill gas and biogas, and alcohol fuels (like Ethanol or Biodiesel).

What is a biofuel GCSE? ›

Biofuels are produced from natural products, often plant biomass containing carbohydrate. As biofuels are produced from plants, they are renewable and theoretically carbon neutral .

What is bioenergy system? ›

Bioenergy is a renewable energy resource derived from living organisms and/or their byproducts. It currently accounts for approximately 6% of Canada's total energy supply. Bioenergy is an extensive sustainable energy resource that can supply energy to Canada while emitting low CO2 and reducing waste.

What are the benefits of bioenergy? ›

Bioenergy qualities
  • Better air quality. ...
  • Biofuels are biodegradable. ...
  • Regional and rural economic development and employment opportunities. ...
  • Supporting agricultural and food- processing industries. ...
  • Cost savings. ...
  • Less landfill. ...
  • Energy reliability and security. ...
  • A growing range of technologies and applications.

Is bioenergy clean energy? ›

Bioenergy involves efficiently extracting considerable quantities of clean, low-emission electricity from waste. Bioenergy fuel sources are often derived from agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes.

What are the 4 types of biofuels? ›

Biofuel is generally available in all regions of the world, which mainly include fuels like: Biodiesel. Bioethanol. Bio methanol.

What are advantages of biofuel? ›

Biodiesel is a domestically produced, clean-burning, renewable substitute for petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel as a vehicle fuel increases energy security, improves air quality and the environment, and provides safety benefits.

What are 5 examples of biomass? ›

Examples include corn stover (stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs), wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw, sorghum stubble, and rice straw.

What are 4 sources of biomass? ›

We use four types of biomass today: 1) wood and agricultural products; 2) solid waste; 3) landfill gas; and 4) alcohol fuels. biomass energy. Other biomass sources include agricultural waste products like fruit pits and corn cobs.

What are 3 types of biomass? ›

Types of Biomass Fuels

Wood (logs, chips, bark, sawdust) Agricultural waste (fruit pits, corn cobs, straw) Solid waste (garbage, food processing waste)

What is biofuel advantages and disadvantages? ›

Advantages and disadvantages of biofuel
AdvantagesDisadvantages
Less carbon emissions. When burned, they release as much carbon as they absorbed during growth, although some carbon dioxide will be released during production, eg by the tractor.Needs a lot of labour.
2 more rows

What are biofuels pros and cons? ›

What are the Disadvantages of Biofuels?
Pros of BiofuelsCons of Biofuels
Green energy -comes from natural sourcesNot enough land space to grow crops to generate biofuels
Renewable form of energy- constantly replenished by natureGlobal decline in food production-As more land is directed towards biomass production
11 more rows
23 May 2022

What are the impacts of biofuel? ›

Regarding non-GHG environmental impacts, research suggests that production of biofuel feedstocks, particularly food crops like corn and soy, could increase water pollution from nutrients, pesticides, and sediment (NRC 2011). Increases in irrigation and ethanol refining could deplete aquifers (NRC 2011).

Videos

1. The Problem with Biofuels
(Real Engineering)
2. NREL’s Advanced Biofuels Research
(National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL)
3. Biofuel | Bioethanol | Biodiesel | Bioethanol production | Biodiesel production | Biofuel production
(Educational Biology)
4. Biofuels and bioprospecting for beginners - Craig A. Kohn
(TED-Ed)
5. Plenary Panel: Biofuels and Bioenergy at Berkeley
(UC Berkeley Events)
6. Bioenergy and Biofuels: The Biomass Resource in Washington
(UW Video)

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