**AISC Connection Design Example**

This tutorial provides an AISC connection design example. Shear connections between I-shaped sections are some of the most common connections in steel design. To help understand the required design checks in accordance with AISC 360, this article will use a design example to explain them. With this type of connection, we can also quickly get to the results of this example through the use of the SkyCiv Connection Designmodule. Make sure to check out the additional article on designing a moment connection.

The calculations presented here will be using the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. If you aren’t familiar with the difference between ASD and LRFD in structural design, make sure tocheck out our videoexplaining this.

**AISC Connection Design Manual**

For this example, we are going to be evaluating the capacity of a single-plate connection between a W16x50 beam and a W14x90 column using the dimensions and bolts shown below. This connection needs to be able to support the beam end reactions.

**Given:**

Service Level Loads & Material:

Reaction from Dead Load (RD) = *8.0 kips*

Reaction from Live Load (RL) = *25.0 kips*

Plate Material: ASTM A36, Fy = *36 ksi*, Fu = *58 ksi*

Beam and Column Material: ASTM A992, Fy = *50 ksi*, Fu = *65 ksi*

Beam and Column Geometry:

**Beam**: W16x50;* tw = 0.380 in, d = 16.3 in., t f = 0.630 in***Column**: W14x90; *tf = 0.710 in.***Shear Plate**: 1/4 in thick; 4 1/2 in x 11 in dimensions

Fixtures (Bolts and Welds):*(4) – 3/4-in.*-diameter ASTM A325-N bolts in standard holes

70-ksi electrode fillets

**Load Calculation:**

*LRFD*:

**Ultimate Reaction** (*Ru)* = 1.2(8.0 kips) + 1.6(25.0 kips) = **49.6 kips**

*ASD*:

**Allowable Reaction** (*Ra)* = 8.0 kips + 25 kips = **33.0 kips**

Using the SkyCiv Connection Design software, the different parts of the connection will now be checked in accordance with the Section J checks of AISC 360:

**Web Plate Shear Yielding (W14x90)**

Allowable Shear Capacity:Allowable Shear Capacity: Ω = 1.5

*Rav* = (0.6 *Fy Agv* / Ω) = [ 0.6 (36 ksi) (0.25 in) 11.5 in / 1.5 ]= 41.4 kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,*Rv* = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rav* = 41.4 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 41.4) =** 0.797, OK**

**Web Plate to W14x90 Flange, Weld Strength**

Strength of Fillet Welds: Ω = 2.0

Weld Size, t = 0.1875 in*Fnw* = 0.6*FEXX*

*Fnw *= 0.6*FEXX*[ 1.0 + 0.5 sin^1.5 *θ* ]*θ* = the angle which the load makes with the weld axis

= 90, for transversely loaded welds

= 0, for longitudinally loaded welds

Strength per unit size of weld:Strength per unit size of weld:

Allowable weld stress,*Faw* = [ 0.6 (70) / 2.0 ] = 21 ksi

transverse length,*lt* = 23 in

longitudinal length,*ll* = 0 in

total effective length,*l* = *lt*(1.5) +*ll*(1.0) = *23*(1.5) +*0* (1.0) = 34.5 in

(*Ra / t*) = 724.5 kips / in

Effective size (throat) of fillet weld, a:

0.707 = the cosine or sine of 45deg

a = (0.707)t = 0.133in

*Ra* = (*Ra /t*)*t *= 724.5 (0.133 in)= 96.1 kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required load,R = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,Ra = 96.1 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 96.1) =** 0.344, OK**

**Web Plate Shear Rupture (W16x50)**

Allowable Shear Capacity: Ω = 2.0

Calculation of net depth:

total length of bolt hole(s) = 0.875 in (4) = 3.5 in

net depth,*dnet* = 11.5 in − [ 0.875 in (4) ] = 8.0 in

*Rav* = (0.6* Fy Anv / *Ω) = [ 0.6 (58 ksi) (0.25 in) 8 in / 2.0 ]= 34.8 kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,*Rv* = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rav* = 34.8 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 34.8) = **0.948, OK**

**Web Plate to W16x50 Web, Block Shear Rupture Strength**

Block Shear Strength: Ω = 2.0

(*Ra* / Ω) = (*Ubs Fu Ant / *Ω)+ min[ 0.6 *Fy Agv *, 0.6 *Fu Anv ] / *Ω

Tension Rupture Component:*Ubs*=1.0(uniform tension)

(*Ubs Fu Ant / *Ω) = [ 1.0 (58 ksi) (1.0625 in) (0.25 in) / 2.0 ] = 30.8 kips/in (0.25 in) = 7.7 kips

Shear Yielding Component:0.6 *Fy Agv*

(0.6 *Fy Agv / *Ω) = [ 0.6 (36 ksi) (10.25 in) / 2.0 ](0.25) = 110.7 kips/in (0.25 in) = 27.7 kips

Shear Rupture Component:0.6* Fu Anv*

(0.6 *Fu Anv / *Ω) = [ 0.6 (58 ksi) (7.1875 in) / 2.0 ](0.25 in) = 125.1 kips/in (0.25 in) = 31.3 kips

Total Block Shear Capacity:Total Block Shear Capacity:*(Ra* / Ω)= 7.7 kips+ min [27.7 kips,31.3 kips] = 35.4 kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,*Rv* = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rav* = 35.4 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 35.4) = **0.933, OK**

**Web Plate to W16x50 Web, Bolt Group Shear, and Bearing Check***1. Shear Strength of Bolts: Ω = 2.0*

Bolt Diameter = 0.768in

Nominal Shear Strength,*Fnv* = 54 ksi

Nominal Shear Strength (per bolt),*Rnv* = 0.6*Fnv**Ab* = 0.6 (54 ksi)0.463in^2 = 25.0kips

(*Rnv* / Ω) =12.5kips / bolt

*2. Bearing Strength of Standard Bolt Holes: Ω = 2.0*

(Ignoring bolt hole deformation at service load level)

edge distance,*le* = 0.84in

(clear)distance to adjacent hole,*lc* = 2.19in

Since edge distance is less than the adjacent distance to the next bolt hole, edge distance will control:*(Rnb / *Ω) = (1.2

*lc t Fu /*Ω)≤(2.4

*d t Fu /*Ω)

For the outer bolt (tearout), lc = 0.84 in:*Rnb* = 1.2*lc*t*Fu* =1.2 (0.84 in) 0.25 in (58 ksi) = 18.4 kips

(*Rnb* / Ω) = 9.2kips

For the inner bolt (tearout), lc = 2.19 in:*Rnb* = 1.2*lc*t*Fu* = 1.2 (2.19 in) 0.25 in (58 ksi) = 47.6 kips

(*Rnb* / Ω) = 23.8kips

For overall bearing (bolt hole elongation):*Rnb* = 2.4d t*Fu* = 2.4 (0.8125 in) 0.25 in (58 ksi) = 33.4kips

(*Rnb* / Ω) = 16.7kips

**Bearing will control over bolt shear since 9.2 kips < 12.5 kips**

*3. Capacity of Bolt Group*

Considering the minimum among: bolt shear capacity, bearing and tearing in inner and outer bolt holes.

a). Capacity of outer bolt (as established above):

(outer bolt),*Rab* = 9.2kips / bolt

b). Capacity of inner bolt (as established above):

(inner bolt),*Rab* = 12.5kips / bolt

c). Capacity of the bolts as a group: sum of the capacities a). and b).*Rab* = 1 (9.2kips / bolt) + 3 (12.5 kips / bolt) = 46.7kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,R = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rab* = 46.7 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 46.7) = **0.707, OK**

**Web Element Shear Rupture (W16x50)**

Allowable Shear Capacity: Ω = 2.0

Calculation of net depth:Calculation of net depth:

total length of bolt hole(s) = 0.875 in (4) = 3.5 in

net depth,*dnet* =16.3 − [ 0.875 in (4) ] = 12.8 in

*Rav* = (0.6 *Fy Anv* / Ω) = [ 0.6 (58 ksi) (0.38 in) 12.8 / 2.0 ] = 84.6 kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,*Rv* = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rav* = 84.6 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 84.6) = **0.390, OK**

**Web Element, Bolt Group Shear and Bearing Check**

*1. Shear Strength of Bolts*: Ω = 2.0

Bolt Diameter = 0.768in

Nominal Shear Strength,*Fnv* = 54 ksi

Nominal Shear Strength (per bolt),*Rnv* = 0.6*Fnv**Ab* = 0.6 (54 ksi)0.463in^2 = 25.0kips

(*Rnv / *Ω) =12.5kips

*2. Bearing Strength of Standard Bolt Holes*: Ω = 2.0

(Ignoring bolt hole deformation at service load level)

edge distance,*le* = 0.84in

(clear) distance to adjacent hole,*lc* = 2.19in

Since edge distance is less than the adjacent distance to the next bolt hole, edge distance will control.

(*Rnb* / Ω) = (1.2 *lc t Fu / *Ω)≤(2.4 *d t Fu / *Ω)

For the outer bolt (tearout), lc = 0.84 in:*Rnb* = 1.2*lc*t*Fu* = 1.2(0.84 in) 0.38 in (58 ksi) = 27.9 kips

(*Rnb* / Ω) = 13.9kips

For the inner bolt (tearout), lc = 2.19 in:*Rnb* = 1.2*lc*t*Fu* = 1.2 (2.19 in) 0.38 in (58 ksi) = 72.3 kips

(*Rnb* / Ω) = 36.2kips

For overall bearing (bolt hole elongation):*Rnb* = 2.4d t*Fu* = 2.4 (0.8125 in) 0.38 in (58 kksi) = 50.8kips

(*Rnb / *Ω) = 25.4kips

**Bolt shear will control over bearing since 12.5 kips < 13.9 kips**

*3. Capacity of Bolt Group*

Considering the minimum among: bolt shear capacity, bearing and tearing in inner and outer bolt holes.

a). Capacity of outer bolt (as established above):

(outer bolt),*Rab* = 12.5kips / bolt

b). Capacity of inner bolt (as established above):

(inner bolt),*Rab* = 12.5kips / bolt

c). Capacity of the bolts as a group: sum of the capacities a). and b)*Rab* = 12.5 kips+ 3(12.5 kips) = 50.0kips

Design capacity ratio, DCR:

required shear,R = 33.0 kips

overall capacity,*Rab* = 50.0 kips

DCR = (33.0 / 50.0) = **0.660, OK**

Alternatively, if you are already an experienced engineer and are familiar with the design process for a simple shear connection, the process can be substantially shortened, thanks to the design tables offered in the AISC 360 Design Manual:

**Bolt Shear, Weld Shear, and Bolt Bearing, Shear Yielding, Shear Rupture, and Block Shear Rupture of the Plate**

Try four rows of bolts, 1/4-in. plate thickness, and 3/16-in. fillet weld size.

*From AISC Manual Table 10-10a:*

*LRFD*

*Rn* = 52.2 kips > 49.6 kips, **OK**

*ASD*

*R*n = 34.8 kips > 33.0 kips = Ra, **OK**

**Bolt Bearing for Beam Web**

Block shear rupture, shear yielding and shear rupture will not control for an un-coped section.

From AISC Manual Table 10-1, for an un-coped section, the beam web available strength is:

LRFD

*R*n = 351 kips/in. (0.380 in.) = 133 kips > 49.6 kips = Ru, **OK**

ASD

*R*n = 234 kips/in. (0.380 in.) = 88.9 kips > 33.0 kips = Ra, **OK**

The AISC connection design example shown above is done under ASD (the pdf version is available here: ASD Connection Design Report.pdf ). Similarly, the LRFD version example can be found in this link: LRFD Connection Design.pdf.

**Mico Dalistan**

Product Developer

BEng (Civil)

**REFERENCES**:

AISC 360 Specification Structural Steel Buildings

AISC Design Examples v14.1 (EXAMPLE II.A-17, pages IIA-60 to 61)

SkyCiv Connection Design Software: https://skyciv.com/structural-software/connection-design/

## FAQs

### What is AISC ASD? ›

AISC ASD (9^{th},1989) - **an American national standard "Specification for Structural Steel Buildings" Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design**, released in July 1, 1989. This Standard implements checks for the design of members for tension, compression, bending, shear and combined.

**How do you create a moment connection? ›**

Design of Moment Connections

In moment connection, we **transfer the whole moment to the other element**. No relative rotation is considered. The design moment is considered to calculate the weld length and weld size. In addition, depending on the applied force, bolt compression and tension forces also can be calculated.

**What are shear connectors and how are they design? ›**

A Shear connector is **a steel projection provided on the top flange of steel composite bridge girders to provide necessary shear transfer between the steel girder and composite slab to enable composite action**. The most widely used form of shear connector is the headed stud, or shear stud.

**What is the difference between moment connection and shear connection? ›**

**While shear connections are dependent mostly on the web of a section, moment connections add to that by strengthening the connectivity of the flanges**. This can be achieved through the use of plate stiffeners, welds, or other fixtures that strengthen and increase the rigidity of the connection between members.

**What are the two types of shear? ›**

**Types of Shear Stress**

- Transverse shear stress is applied on an object perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the object. ...
- Torsional shear stress occurs because of torsion, which is when equal forces are applied in opposite directions on an object.

**What is the best example of shearing? ›**

**Shearing Strain in Real Life**

- All forms of cutting (Cutting fruits, vegetables, paper, cloth, tree etc)
- Painting, Brushing, Applying creams/soaps/lotion/ointment etc.
- While Chewing food between the teeth's.
- While walking or running while our feet push ground back to move forward.

**What is shear connection used for? ›**

Shear connections are typically used **to connect beams to other beams or columns**. Such connections transfer shear, with minimum rotational restraint, as opposed to moment connections. This article is an overview of the AISC provisions for the design of shear connections.

**Should I use LRFD or ASD? ›**

Comparing both on the same building design, the general consensus is that **LRFD will result in stronger structures for more highly dynamic loads and ASD will result in stronger structures for less variable (more predicable) loads**.

**Which is better LRFD or ASD? ›**

For structures subjected to highly unpredictable loads (live, wind, and seismic loads for example) the LRFD W_{eff} is higher than the ASD W which results in stronger structures.

**What is the latest AISC 360? ›**

The latest version of **ANSI/AISC 360-16** dated March 2021 incorporates all of the errata to previous printings (the following errata lists include revisions to other parts of the 15th Edition Steel Construction Manual):

### What are the two main types of moment resisting connections? ›

The most commonly used moment resisting connections are **bolted end plate beam-to-column connections**; these are shown in the figure below. Instead of bolted beam-to-column connections, welded connections can be used.

**What are the different types of connections in steel structures? ›**

...

**These include:**

- Moment Connections.
- Shear Connections.
- Axial Connections.

**What is the purpose of a moment? ›**

A moment **causes a rotation about a point or axis**. If the moment is to be taken about a point due to a force F, then in order for a moment to develop, the line of action cannot pass through that point. If the line of action does go through that point, the moment is zero because the magnitude of the moment arm is zero.

**What is shear with example? ›**

**A pair of scissors is a classic example to demonstrate shear force**. When an object, for example, a piece of paper is placed between the two metal blades of a pair of scissors, it gets divided into two parts only because of the shear force.

**When should shear connectors be installed? ›**

Section 1926.754(c)(1) requires shear connectors to be installed **after the beam and decking have been installed**. At the time a beam and its attached shear connectors are exposed, the installation process of the shear connectors has been long completed.

**What are the two types of beam connections? ›**

Steel beam connections are categorized into two groups namely **framed and seated connections**.

**Are shear connections welded? ›**

The most common shear connection (not only in North America) is a single plate connection consisting of **a plate fillet welded to a supporting column or girder** and bolted to the web of a simply supported beam.

**What is full shear connection? ›**

In general "full shear connection" is defined as **the least number of connectors for a given beam, loading, and design method, such that the bending resistance of the beam would not be increased if more connectors were provided**; otherwise, the shear connection is partial.

**How do you calculate shear? ›**

Shear stress is the force, F, acting on a given section divided by the cross sectional area, A, of the section, calculated in the direction of the force. E.G., for a force, F, normal to the surface of a beam having a cross sectional area of A, the shear stress is **= F/A**.

**What are the three stages of shearing? ›**

Phases of shearing process: **(a) contact engaging; (b) penetration stage; (c) fracturing stage; (d) full material separation**. The sheet metal forming by shearing is one of the most used processes in industries.

### What are the three types of shearing? ›

Shearing-type operations include **blanking, piercing, roll slitting, and trimming**.

**What is shearing in design? ›**

2.1 Introduction. Shear is **the term assigned to forces that act perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of structural elements**.

**What is the method of shearing? ›**

Most shearers use the method in which **the sheep is set upon its rump and supported firmly between the shearer's knees**. 2) The skin should be stretched so that it is smooth in the area being shorn. 3) Wool fibres should be cut only once next to the skin to avoid "second cuts" or short fibres of reduced value.

**How is shear strength calculated? ›**

**SYS = approx.** **0.75*TYS** . There are no published standard values for shear strength like with tensile and yield strength. Instead, it is common for it to be estimated as 60% of the ultimate tensile strength.

**Why is shear design important? ›**

Whether you are designing material to withstand shear stresses or fail as a result of them, it is important to accurately know the shear strength of that material. Shear characteristics are also important **when characterizing the structural integrity of a bond between two surfaces**.

**Why do bolts fail in shear? ›**

**Excess Shear Stress**

As we mentioned, when shear stress exceeds the shear strength, it leads to failure. Overstressing of the bolt is one of the main causes that lead to shearing failure.

**Where are shear connectors used? ›**

Shear connectors are a critical way of creating strong connection points that hold up to shear loading. They are used in many applications including, but not limited to: **Connecting upright steel beams to a concrete foundation**. Connecting load bearing beams to a concrete flooring in multi-story buildings.

**How do you convert ASD to LRFD? ›**

To do so, instead of just using the LRFD load factor, **use the ratio of LRFD Factor over ASD Factor**. So if the governing load combination for an anchor was 0.9D + 1.0E and the dead load was 1,000 pounds and the seismic load was 4,000, then the conversion factor would be (0.9)(0.2) + (1.0/0.7)(0.8) = 1.32.

**What is the difference between LRFD and limit state design? ›**

Limit State Design (LSD), also known as Load And Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), refers to a design method used in structural engineering. **A limit state is a condition of a structure beyond which it no longer fulfills the relevant design criteria**.

**Which is more economical LRFD or ASD? ›**

LRFD takes material differences into account and is much more accurate. While it is still safe, **it is more economical than ASD**.

### Is ASD same as WSD? ›

**WSD or also known as ASD** is the traditional method of structural design not only for reinforced concrete structures, but also for steel and timber.

**Why is LRFD used in bridge design? ›**

The LRFD method **applies statistically determined factors to bridge design parameters**. It uses a series of load factors and resistance factors to account for variabilities in properties of loads and material resistances.

**Is wood design ASD or LRFD? ›**

While allowable stress design (ASD) methods are still acceptable, the perception is that the majority of engineers use LRFD for concrete, masonry and steel systems. This brings us to wood. **ASD has been the basis for engineering wood systems for decades**.

**What is full form of Isa in steel? ›**

All the major Public and Private Sector steel enterprises of India joined hands in August 2014 to form the “Indian Steel Association” (ISA) headquartered in New Delhi.

**What is the full form of AISC? ›**

The **American Institute of Steel Construction** (AISC), headquartered in Chicago, is a non-partisan, not-for-profit technical institute and trade association established in 1921 to serve the structural steel design community and construction industry in the United States.

**What is new in AISC 15th edition? ›**

AISC 15th Edition **allows you to use bearing bolts in short slots in this condition with shear tabs**. If a “normal” shear tab will work for shear, it can be assumed that this will also work for the axial load using bearing bolts.

**What is the difference between Omrf and SMRF? ›**

Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special detailing requirements for ductile behavior. Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) is a moment- resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behavior and comply with the requirements given in IS-4326 or IS-13920 or SP6.

**Which is better braced frame or moment resisting frame? ›**

**Moment resisting frames have more deformation capacity and less stiffness compared to braced frames**. Read More: How to Choose Economical Steel Frames for Buildings and Structures?

**What is the difference between a pinned and moment connection? ›**

If the member is connected such that it can rotate under the applied loads (without movements), the connection is considered as a “pin” or “simple” or "shear" connection. **If the member is also restrained against rotation, it is called a “moment” or “rigid” connection**.

**What are the four types of connections? ›**

Internet Connection Types: **WiFi, Broadband, DSL, Cable**.

### Which connection is best in steel structure? ›

The **welded connection** is the primary connection method for steel structures.

**What are the three types of connections? ›**

Introduce the three types of connections: **text-to-self, text-to-text and text-to-world**.

**Why is torque called moment? ›**

**Moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object** (the concept which is called torque in physics).

**What is the difference between torque and moment? ›**

What is the main difference between torque and moment? **Torque is the measurement of the turning force of a body, while the moment is the measurement of the perpendicular distance from the point of rotation to the force's line of action**.

**What are the different types of moments? ›**

– The four commonly used moments in statistics are- the **mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis**.

**What is a shear connector? ›**

Shear Connectors **act as reinforcing members, locking the support structure to the concrete floor**. Shear Connectors transfer horizontal shear from slab to beam, causing the two elements to act as a unit. Strength and stiffness of the stud welded Shear Connector section can be increased without using more steel.

**What is simple shear connections? ›**

SSINGLE-PLATE SHEAR CONNECTIONS, ALSO KNOWN. AS SHEAR TABS, HAVE AS SIMPLE A GEOMETRY AS CAN BE HOPED FOR—**a single rectangular plate of steel welded to a support on one end and bolted to a supported beam on the other**.

**How do you build shear stress? ›**

If the direction of the force is parallel to the plane of the object. The deformation will be along that plane. The stress experienced by the object here is shear stress or tangential stress. **It arises when the force vector components which are parallel to the cross-sectional area of the material**.

**How do you make a shear wall? ›**

The only way to properly install a shear wall is to **snap a chalk line down the center of each stud and place a nail 1/4 inch from each side of chalk line**. Remember, your shear wall may be the only thing between safety and catastrophe, and it needs to be built perfectly.

**Where is shear connection used? ›**

They are used in many applications including, but not limited to: **Connecting upright steel beams to a concrete foundation**. Connecting load bearing beams to a concrete flooring in multi-story buildings. Connecting composite slabs to steel beams in overpasses and other small to large scale bridges.

### What is the difference between simple shear and direct shear? ›

For the direct shear test, shearing occurs at a predetermined center of the specimen which may not be the weakest plane of the soil while indirect simple shear, the entire specimen distorts without the formation of single shearing surface.

**How do you calculate shearing? ›**

Shear stress is the force, F, acting on a given section divided by the cross sectional area, A, of the section, calculated in the direction of the force. E.G., for a force, F, normal to the surface of a beam having a cross sectional area of A, the **shear stress is = F/A**.

**What is real life example of shear stress? ›**

Answer 2: When you chew feed between your teeth, it is an example of shear stress. After that, when you walk or run and your feet push ground back to move forward. Similarly, when a moving vehicle will start or stop, the seat's surface experiences shear stress.

**How do you calculate shear wall? ›**

**The resisting moment absent hold-downs is the sum of the wall weight and the roof load times half the wall width** or (1080 + (6)(150)) * (6/2) = 5940 ft-lbs. Since the overturning moment exceeds the resisting moment, a hold-down is required. The total unit shear in the wall is (2600 + 198) / 6 = 466.4 lbs./ft.

**What is the maximum thickness of shear wall? ›**

Shear walls are the main vertical structural elements with a dual role of resisting both the gravity and lateral loads. Wall thickness varies from 40 mm to **500 mm**, depending on the number of stories, building age, and thermal insulation requirements.

**What is the minimum thickness of shear wall? ›**

2109.2. 1.1 Shear Wall Thickness

Minimum nominal thickness of masonry shear walls shall be **8 inches (203 mm)**. Exception: Shear walls of one-story buildings are permitted to be a minimum nominal thickness of 6 inches (152 mm).